Last Updated August 27, 2023

 August 27, 2023

If you’re a peptide researcher, you may be wondering about the best peptides companies that sell high-quality compounds.

But it’s not as simple as finding the first online vendor that offers research peptides and placing an order. In fact, it’s important to do due diligence when researching the best peptides vendors.

Vendor selection deserves as much research and attention as the peptides themselves. After all, a pure and high-quality product is key to safety and validity in research.

Fortunately, our expert team is familiar with the most reputable peptide providers, with the experience to recommend the best places to buy various peptides and other research chemicals.

Here are the best websites with peptides for sale…

Buy from the #1 online Peptides vendor in the world...

Disclaimer: contains information about products that are intended for laboratory and research use only, unless otherwise explicitly stated. This information, including any referenced scientific or clinical research, is made available for educational purposes only. Likewise, any published information relative to the dosing and administration of reference materials is made available strictly for reference and shall not be construed to encourage the self-administration or any human use of said reference materials. makes every effort to ensure that any information it shares complies with national and international standards for clinical trial information and is committed to the timely disclosure of the design and results of all interventional clinical studies for innovative treatments publicly available or that may be made available. However, research is not considered conclusive. makes no claims that any products referenced can cure, treat or prevent any conditions, including any conditions referenced on its website or in print materials.

Top 3 Places to Buy Peptides Online

These are the top three vendors we recommend for ordering peptides online:

1. Peptide Sciences

2. Core Peptides

3. Limitless Life Nootropics

We have selected these vendors as the premier websites to buy peptides on the Internet for a variety of reasons — which can all be found below.

Best Peptides Companies

What are Peptides?

Peptides are short chains made up of amino acids. They are closely related to proteins because proteins are composed of chains of 51 or more amino acids, while peptides are composed of chains of 50 or fewer amino acids.

There are many naturally-occurring peptides manufactured and used by the body itself, and these play different roles in health and performance. In fact, many medications and dietary supplements are peptide-based, including the weight loss drug semaglutide, collagen peptides used in nutritional supplements, and even the antibiotic vancomycin [1].

There’s also growing scientific interest in peptides. They may be able to help with a variety of health or beauty concerns, and for the most part, they appear to be safe with low risk of side effects.

As research on peptides continues, new uses for various peptides therapies are being discovered—particularly in the areas of weight loss and body composition, anti-aging, skin care, hair care, injury recovery, and immune support.

How We Chose the Best Peptide Sources

Here’s how we assembled our list of the best places to buy peptides online:

  • Product Selection: We included vendors that carry a variety of research peptides in different forms or combinations.
  • Testing & Quality Control: The most important criterion for us is testing and quality control. The best peptide vendors have multiple-step quality control processes that ensure quality at each step in the manufacturing process, and which utilize in-house testing and/or independent, third-party laboratory evaluation.
  • Shipping & Payment Options: Some other key things we looked for in reputable peptide vendors were fast, reliable shipping options, and a variety of payment options to help ensure privacy and discretion.
  • Customer Service: We also assessed peptide vendors based on their customer service, sales and promotions, and return or refund policies.
  • Online Reviews: In addition, we scoured the internet for reviews from researchers who have ordered from these vendors to get accounts of their experiences.
  • Firsthand experience: Finally, we work with many of the listed vendors ourselves, so we can vouch for their legitimacy.

Overall, our research team believes these are the premier companies to buy peptides online from. Our full list of best peptide companies can be found below.

Best Peptides Companies and Sources | Top 10

Enough of the fluff! Without further ado…

Here are the top 10 best peptide companies for purchasing research peptides online:

1. Peptide Sciences

Product Types: Research Chemicals and Peptides
Quality of Products: 5/5
Pricing: 3/5
Discounts: Available for Bulk Purchases
Alternatives: Core Peptides, Limitless Life Nootropics
Overall Ranking: 5/5


Topping our list is Peptide Sciences, our go-to source of high-quality research peptides. We like Peptides Sciences because of their meticulous quality assurance, which involves product testing at every step in the manufacturing process — from the raw inputs to bottling prepared peptides. They utilize third-party testing in addition to their own labs, and because of this degree of testing they can assure a 99% or greater purity level for their products.

Additionally, they feature a huge catalog of research peptides that’s more comprehensive than those of most others on this list—including peptides in a variety of concentrations and different formats, like topical and injectable.

Peptides Sciences also offers a number of promotions and sales, including discounts for bulk purchases, and free shipping and bacteriostatic water with large orders.

They also provide fast, flexible shipping within the United States, and they accept a variety of payment options.

Finally, based on both reviews and our firsthand experience, most interactions and experiences with this company are overwhelmingly positive.

For these reasons, we can definitively endorse Peptide Sciences as our go-to peptide vendor. Their comprehensive selection and outstanding quality control practices are what earned them our top spot.

Click here to our full review of Peptide Sciences.

Buy from the #1 online Peptides vendor in the world...

2. Core Peptides

Product Types: Research Peptides
Quality of Products: 5/5
Pricing: 3/5
Discounts: Available for Bulk Purchases
Alternatives: Peptide Sciences, Limitless Life Nootropics
Overall Ranking: 5/5


Core Peptides is another of our preferred peptide websites. Like Peptide Sciences, they have comprehensive testing protocols in place that allow them to offer products at 99% purity. Although their selection is slightly more limited, they do still offer a wide variety.

Their website is also straightforward, making it easy to navigate to individual peptide products. All of their products are made in the United States, and they provide research peptides for a number of research laboratories around the world. Speaking of, they offer discreet worldwide shipping. For U.S. purchasers, they offer free shipping on orders over $200, as well as overnight priority shipping for an added fee.

In addition, Core Peptides has outstanding customer service practices. For bulk purchases or special orders, you can easily reach out to their representatives for a more personalized ordering process and bulk discounts.

It’s important to note that their payment options are fairly limited. They currently only take credit cards, while many vendors on this list have more flexible payments that include e-check and crypto.

We can still confidently recommend Core Peptides thanks to their testing practices and their large selection of pure and high-quality peptides.

Buy research peptides from Core Peptides today...

3. Limitless Life Nootropics

Product Types: Research Peptides, Nootropics
Quality of Products: 5/5
Pricing: 3/5
Discounts: Discount coupons, sales, bundle deals
Alternatives: Peptide Sciences, Core Peptides
Overall Ranking: 5/5


Rounding out our top three most reputable and trustworthy peptide providers is Limitless Life Nootropics. While Limitless now offers a variety of peptides, they still specialize in nootropics — which are compounds that may help support brain function, mood, memory, focus, and executive function [2].

We like Limitless because they put a lot of care and resources into product testing to ensure quality. They utilize high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry testing (HPLC-MS) testing to ensure a standard of purity for all of their products, making them suitable for highly-regulated research studies.

Additionally, Limitless offers some of the best sales, coupons, and deals on the market. Their bundles are a cost-effective way to purchase curated peptide combinations. For example, they offer an Obesity Reduction Research Bundle and an Immunity Enhancement Research Bundle.

They also accept various payment options, including Zelle, Revolut, and Cashapp. To ensure safe shipping, they offer shipping insurance at 2% of the order price.

For their sales and comprehensive in-house and third-party testing, Limitless Life Nootropics makes our top three.

Buy research peptides from Limitless VIP today...

4. PureRawz

Product Types: Research Peptides, SARMs, Nootropics, PCTs, Botanicals
Quality of Products: 4.5/5
Pricing: 4/5
Discounts: Discount coupons, rewards, and affiliate programs
Alternatives: Peptide Sciences
Overall Ranking: 4.5/5


PureRawz is a unique peptide provider that specializes in selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) and nasal spray formulations. In addition to SARMs, they have a wide variety of peptides and nootropics.

All of their products are third-party tested in U.S. labs. PureRawz also offers free shipping for domestic orders over $99, along with worldwide shipping options.

For researchers interested in studying nasal spray formulations — which are typically less researched than injectable peptides — PureRawz is a good source.

Click here to read our full Purerawz review.

Buy research peptides from Pure Rawz today...


Product Types: Research Peptides, Nootropics, Research Chemicals
Quality of Products: 4/5
Pricing: 4/5
Discounts: Discount coupons, sales, affiliate program
Alternatives: Peptide Sciences, PureRawz
Overall Ranking: 4/5 is another trusted peptide provider.

We like them because of their massive catalog of peptides, nootropics, and other research chemicals. In addition, follows rigorous third-party testing protocols to ensure that their products are pure and high in quality.

They provide a variety of shipping and payment options, including free shipping on domestic orders over $100. They also regularly offer valuable discount codes that provide a percentage off on order subtotals. For another trusted provider with a wide selection, is a great choice.

Buy research peptides from Science.Bio today...

6. SwissChems

Product Types: Peptides, SARMs, Research Chemicals, Nootropics, PCTs
Quality of Products: 3.5/5
Pricing: 4/5
Discounts: Ongoing deals on select products, discount coupons, and a rewards program
Alternatives: Peptide Sciences, Core Peptides
Overall Ranking: 3.5/5


SwissChems is one of our favorite peptide vendors because they have an extensive selection of research peptides and other research chemicals, like SARMs and nootropics, as well as some botanical formulations.

SwissChems products are also third-party tested, manufactured in the United States, and guaranteed to have over 99% purity. Additionally, you can view independent test results for each product listed directly on their website.

They also offer free shipping for domestic orders over $100 and worldwide orders over $300, and they accept crypto payments. For these reasons, SwissChems is one of our preferred vendors.

Click here to read our full Swiss Chems review.

Buy research peptides from SwissChems today...

7. Integrative Peptides

Product Types: Oral Research Peptides
Quality of Products: 4/5
Pricing: 3/5
Discounts: Discount coupons, affiliate program
Alternatives: Peptide Sciences, Limitless Life Nootropics
Overall Ranking: 3.5/5


Integrative Peptides specializes in oral peptides. Because most peptides for research are administered as subcutaneous injections, alternative methods of administration represent major research opportunities that could make peptide therapy more accessible to a wide variety of people.

Additionally, Integrative Peptides offers completely free shipping within the United States and works closely with healthcare providers to help improve access to peptide therapies. Their products are all manufactured at a 99% or greater purity level.

For their selection of oral peptides, Integrative Peptides makes our top vendor list.

Buy research peptides from Integrative Peptides today...

8. Entera Skincare

Product Types: Peptide-based Skin and Hair Care
Quality of Products: 5/5
Pricing: 3/5
Discounts: Discount coupons, discounted replenishment orders
Alternatives: None
Overall Ranking: 4/5


Entera Skincare is known for their innovative Folitin product, a peptide-based hair growth formula. Folitin is a topical peptide blend designed to support hair growth or hair regrowth when applied to the scalp. Anecdotal reports suggest that Folitin is a potent hair loss treatment that targets both symptoms and causes, including inflammation, scalp health and dihydrotestosterone production.

Entera Skincare offers free and paid shipping options, as well as optional delivery insurance to help protect Folitin shipments. This is our favorite provider for a peptide-based hair loss treatment.

Click here to read our full Folitin Hair Growth Serum review.

Buy research peptides from Entera Skincare today...

9. Sports Technology Labs

Product Types: Research Peptides, SARMs
Quality of Products: 3/5
Pricing: 3/5
Discounts: Discount coupons, bulk order discounts, sales, affiliate program
Alternatives: Peptide Sciences, PureRawz
Overall Ranking: 3/5


Sports Technology Labs has a wide selection of both SARMs and research peptides, making them one of our preferred vendors. Additionally, the vendor features exceptionally pure products that are manufactured and independently tested in the United States.

They also offer fast shipping, with most orders shipped the same day or the day following an order. Additionally, researchers receive an additional 10% discount off their order when paying with Bitcoin.

Sports Technology Labs is worth a browse if you’re looking for a wide variety of peptides and other compounds.

Buy research peptides from Sports Technology Labs today...

10. Amino Asylum

Product Types: Peptides, SARMs, Amino Acids, Prohormones
Quality of Products: 3/5
Pricing: 3/5
Discounts: Discount coupons, sales
Alternatives: Peptide Sciences, Purerawz
Overall Ranking: 3/5


Amino Asylum has a large catalog of research peptides, and they have a particularly good selection of nasal spray formulations.

With research on intranasal administration of peptides being fairly sparse, nasal sprays represent a good opportunity for researchers to learn more about a less invasive peptide therapy option (when compared to injectable peptides).

Additionally, Amino Asylum offers cost-saving discounts — like 20% off when using this code: BestNasalSprays

Buy research peptides from Amino Asylum today...

Best Peptides Companies

Best Peptides for Weight Loss

Tirzepatide and semaglutide are two of the best peptides for weight loss — currently.

Here’s why:


Tirzepatide is an agonist of both the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) receptor. It lowers blood glucose levels by stimulating insulin secretion and increasing adiponectin. In the United States, it’s approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a type 2 diabetes treatment [3].

Researchers are now specifically interested in tirzepatide’s effects on weight loss. In a 2022 phase-3 clinical trial, researchers noted a dose-dependent effect of tirzepatide on weight loss in study volunteers with overweight and obesity [4].

It’s thought that this effect is due to the way tirzepatide helps to regulate hormones that play a role in both blood sugar management and appetite reduction. Tirzepatide is currently in clinical trials and expected to be approved for this indication in late 2023.


Like tirzepatide, semaglutide also acts on the GLP-1 receptor. It’s currently FDA-approved for type 2 diabetes, weight loss in adults and adolescents, and reducing cardiovascular disease risk in diabetics [5].

In a 68-week randomized-controlled trial in obese patients, researchers found semaglutide caused an average weight loss of 14.9%, while the placebo patients lost only 2.4% of their body weight [6].

Both tirzepatide and semaglutide are once-weekly injectables, and are already playing a significant role in curbing the rapidly rising obesity rates in the U.S. and around the world.

Best Peptides for Skin Care

Here’s a bit more about two of the best peptides for skin care:


GHK-Cu is a copper-binding peptide with powerful anti-aging properties. It’s often featured in topical skincare products, but it can also be used as a subcutaneous injectable.

GHK-Cu was discovered in the 1970s, when researchers found that introducing young blood plasma to aged liver cells helped those liver cells regenerate. The key factor, they found, was GHK, which declines naturally as we age [7].

Researchers have likewise found that GHK-Cu can help promote collagen production and skin cell turnover, leading to healthier and more youthful-looking skin [7].


Epithalon is a longevity-promoting peptide that may help to promote more youthful skin. It could also have anti-aging effects that go far beyond appearance, since it enhances expression of telomerase.

This enzyme supports the lengthening of telomeres, which are protective caps of DNA found at the ends of chromosomes. Telomeres shorten as we age, so lengthening telomeres could prove to have significant longevity benefits [8].

In one 12-year randomized-controlled trial, researchers administered epithalamin—the crude polypeptide pineal gland extract from which epithalon derives—to elderly people with heart disease. The authors found that the long-term therapy improved overall health and exercise tolerance in the treatment group. In addition, the treatment group had 28% fewer deaths than the treatment group at the end of the study period [9].

Best Peptides for Body Composition

For improving body composition and potentially stimulating muscle growth, the best peptides include ipamorelin and CJC-1295 DAC.

Let's dig deeper:


Ipamorelin mimics the hormone ghrelin and acts as a growth hormone secretagogue—meaning that it helps the body ramp up endogenous production of growth hormone. This has a number of potential effects, including angiogenesis (the formation of new blood vessels) and hypertrophy (muscle growth) [10].

For this reason, ipamorelin is one of the main peptides of interest for muscle growth. Still, there’s not a lot of clinical research on the effects of ipamorelin for body composition. However, many independent researchers have reported good results anecdotally.

CJC-1295 DAC

CJC-1295 DAC, like ipamorelin, is a ghrelin mimetic and growth hormone secretagogue. It was originally developed to treat lipodystrophy, a fat storage disorder in people with HIV/AIDS. However, further development was discontinued after a participant died during one of the research studies. It was ultimately confirmed that the death was unrelated to CJC-1295 [11, 12].

Still, because of its effects on growth hormone, CJC-1295 may help improve body composition, especially when paired with weightlifting and a proper diet. Again, while this effect has not been seen in existing research, it has been reported anecdotally.

Best Peptides for Healing

To support wound healing and accelerate injury recovery, here’s more information about the peptides BPC-157 and TB-500:


Body protection compound-157 (BPC-157) is a peptide fragment of an important compound naturally found in human gastric juices. It helps to protect the gut lining from the strong and potentially damaging effects of stomach acid. For this reason, researchers believe it could also be a powerful peptide for promoting injury recovery.

In animal studies, BPC-157 has been shown to promote wound healing [13]. It may also help promote angiogenesis, liver health, pain relief, and tissue regeneration [14, 15, 16, 17].


TB-500 is another promising peptide for wound healing. It’s a synthetic version of the naturally occurring protein thymosin-beta 4. TB-500 works by sequestering the compound actin, which helps to promote tissue repair, healing, and injury recovery.

There’s a lot of animal research on TB-500 that supports its use for improved vasculature, connective tissue production, skeletal muscle, and cardiac muscle [18, 19, 20, 21, 22].

In a human study, researchers have noted that thymosin-beta 4 can help to promote the healing of venous ulcers, and actually led to full healing of 25% of these ulcers within three months [23].

Best Peptides Companies

How to Buy Peptides Online | Country By Country

The legal status and accessibility of research peptides varies significantly by country. There may be country-specific variations in the prescription status and legality of various peptides.

This article is geared towards researchers who are based in the United States, and all of the vendors we referenced deliver within the U.S. In fact, many of them are based in the U.S., and all of their products are both manufactured and tested domestically.

Still, many of our listed vendors also offer worldwide shipping options. No matter where researchers are based, it’s important they understand the legal implications of ordering peptides online for their specific country.

Side Effects of Research Peptides

There are many research peptides, so it’s difficult to make blanket statements about side effects. Although all peptides have the capacity to cause side effects, these can vary greatly in nature and severity depending on a number of factors—including dosage, the health of study participants, and the method of administration.

When preparing for a research study, it’s important to become familiar with the peptide’s side effects as reported in human trials, animals, and anecdotally.

Some of the most common side effects of peptides are often related to the method of administration, which is most often subcutaneous injection. Some of the side effects of injections may include pain, redness, or swelling at the injection site. To help minimize the possibility of injection-related side effects or complications, it’s important to utilize trained technicians when possible.

Also, remember that side effects that have not been outlined in prior research can occur. It’s important to monitor study participants closely for potential side effects or adverse events.

Are Peptides Legal?

Here’s a question that’s often posed by researchers: are peptides legal? The answer is not a simple ‘yes’ or ‘no’.

As we’ve mentioned, peptides are a class of compounds comprising everything from approved prescription medications to dietary supplements to research chemicals.

The peptides we mentioned above are generally considered research peptides. In addition, a few like semaglutide are available in the United States to patients with a valid prescription. Still, even peptides that have gone through FDA’s review process may still be purchased by researchers for laboratory experimentation. Look for a disclaimer to this effect when buying peptides as a researcher.

Another thing to consider is the use of peptides for competitive athletes. Many of the compounds we listed have been banned for use by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) [24].

This means that while they may not be illegal to possess for research purposes, they are strictly banned for use in and out of competition to athletes subject to the WADA rules. For this reason, it’s important to screen study participants and exclude professional athletes from peptide research.

Best Peptides Companies, Vendors, and Websites | Verdict

Ensuring that you’re procuring peptides from a reputable vendor is an extremely important step in the research process. Fortunately, we know the absolute best places to buy peptides online.

Our favorite peptide vendors include Peptide Sciences, Core Peptides, and Limitless Life Nootropics. All three have quality control processes in place to ensure that their products meet purity standards. They also each carry a wide selection of research peptides with flexible payment and shipping options.

Buy peptides online with confidence from any of the vendors we mentioned. Happy researching!


  1. Wang L, Wang N, Zhang W, et al. Therapeutic peptides: current applications and future directions. Signal Transduct Target Ther. 2022;7(1):48. Published 2022 Feb 14. doi:10.1038/s41392-022-00904-4
  2. Malík M, Tlustoš P. Nootropics as Cognitive Enhancers: Types, Dosage and Side Effects of Smart Drugs. Nutrients. 2022;14(16):3367. Published 2022 Aug 17. doi:10.3390/nu14163367
  3. Farzam K, Patel P. Tirzepatide. [Updated 2023 May 26]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2023 Jan-. Available from:
  4. Jastreboff AM, Aronne LJ, Ahmad NN, et al. Tirzepatide Once Weekly for the Treatment of Obesity. N Engl J Med. 2022;387(3):205-216. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2206038
  5. Collins L, Costello RA. Glucagon-like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists. [Updated 2023 Jan 13]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2023 Jan-. Available from:
  6. Wilding JPH, Batterham RL, Calanna S, et al. Once-Weekly Semaglutide in Adults with Overweight or Obesity. N Engl J Med. 2021;384(11):989-1002. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2032183
  7. Pickart L, Margolina A. Regenerative and Protective Actions of the GHK-Cu Peptide in the Light of the New Gene Data. Int J Mol Sci. 2018;19(7):1987. Published 2018 Jul 7. doi:10.3390/ijms19071987
  8. Khavinson VKh, Bondarev IE, Butyugov AA. Epithalon peptide induces telomerase activity and telomere elongation in human somatic cells. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2003;135(6):590-592. doi:10.1023/a:1025493705728
  9. Korkushko OV, Khavinson VKh, Shatilo VB, Antonyuk-Shcheglova IA. Geroprotective effect of epithalamine (pineal gland peptide preparation) in elderly subjects with accelerated aging. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2006;142(3):356-359. doi:10.1007/s10517-006-0365-z
  10. N Mohammadi E, Louwies T, Pietra C, Northrup SR, Greenwood-Van Meerveld B. Attenuation of Visceral and Somatic Nociception by Ghrelin Mimetics. J Exp Pharmacol. 2020;12:267-274. Published 2020 Aug 5. doi:10.2147/JEP.S249747
  11. Henninge J, Pepaj M, Hullstein I, Hemmersbach P. Identification of CJC-1295, a growth-hormone-releasing peptide, in an unknown pharmaceutical preparation. Drug Test Anal. 2010;2(11-12):647-650. doi:10.1002/dta.233
  12. Bernard E. Lipodystrophy study halted after patient death. NAM Aidsmap website. 31 July 2006. Accessed July 7 2023 from
  13. Sikiric P, Drmic D, Sever M, et al. Fistulas Healing. Stable Gastric Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 Therapy. Curr Pharm Des. 2020;26(25):2991-3000. doi:10.2174/1381612826666200424180139
  14. Knezevic M, Gojkovic S, Krezic I, et al. Occlusion of the Superior Mesenteric Artery in Rats Reversed by Collateral Pathways Activation: Gastric Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 Therapy Counteracts Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome; Intracranial, Portal, and Caval Hypertension; and Aortal Hypotension. Biomedicines. 2021;9(6):609. Published 2021 May 26. doi:10.3390/biomedicines9060609
  15. Park JM, Lee HJ, Sikiric P, Hahm KB. BPC 157 Rescued NSAID-cytotoxicity Via Stabilizing Intestinal Permeability and Enhancing Cytoprotection. Curr Pharm Des. 2020;26(25):2971-2981. doi:10.2174/1381612826666200523180301
  16. Lee E, Padgett B. Intra-Articular Injection of BPC 157 for Multiple Types of Knee Pain. Altern Ther Health Med. 2021;27(4):8-13.
  17. Chang CH, Tsai WC, Hsu YH, Pang JH. Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 enhances the growth hormone receptor expression in tendon fibroblasts. Molecules. 2014;19(11):19066-19077. Published 2014 Nov 19. doi:10.3390/molecules191119066
  18. Trenkwalder T, Deindl E, Bongiovanni D, et al. Thymosin-β4-mediated therapeutic neovascularization: role of the PI3K/AKT pathway. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2015;15 Suppl 1:S175-S185. doi:10.1517/14712598.2015.1011122
  19. Smart N, Risebro CA, Melville AA, et al. Thymosin beta4 induces adult epicardial progenitor mobilization and neovascularization. Nature. 2007;445(7124):177-182. doi:10.1038/nature05383
  20. Ehrlich HP, Hazard SW 3rd. Thymosin beta4 enhances repair by organizing connective tissue and preventing the appearance of myofibroblasts. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2010;1194:118-124. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2010.05483.x
  21. Spurney CF, Cha HJ, Sali A, et al. Evaluation of skeletal and cardiac muscle function after chronic administration of thymosin beta-4 in the dystrophin deficient mouse. PLoS One. 2010;5(1):e8976. Published 2010 Jan 29. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0008976
  22. Bjørklund G, Dadar M, Aaseth J, Chirumbolo S. Thymosin β4: A Multi-Faceted Tissue Repair Stimulating Protein in Heart Injury. Curr Med Chem. 2020;27(37):6294-6305. doi:10.2174/0929867326666190716125456
  23. Guarnera G, DeRosa A, Camerini R; 8 European sites. The effect of thymosin treatment of venous ulcers. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2010;1194:207-212. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2010.05490.x
  24. World Anti-Doping Agency. The prohibited list. WADA website. Accessed 7 July 2023 from

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