While liraglutide is among the most studied weight loss peptides on the market, some researchers might still be unclear on the appropriate liraglutide dosage to apply.
This peptide has already been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration as both a treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity.
Emerging research suggests that it may also offer benefits such as:
- Reducing subcutaneous, visceral, and total body fat in healthy individuals
- Improving metabolic health
- Positively impacting the pancreas, CNS, and cardiovascular system.
To maximize research on this GLP-1 agonist, it is crucial to stay up-to-date on the latest evidence regarding liraglutide dosing.
In this educational overview, we provide researchers with a liraglutide dosage calculator based on the latest scientific studies, as well as information on where to source research-grade liraglutide online.
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Liraglutide Dosage Chart | Quick Breakdown
|Timeline||Week #1||Week #2||Week #3||Week #4||Week #5 (full maintenance dose)|
|Daily Dosage for Weight Loss Research (once a day)||0.6 mg||1.2 mg||1.8 mg||2.4 mg||3.0 mg|
What is Liraglutide?
Liraglutide is a synthetic analog of the naturally occurring incretin hormone called glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), which is produced in the gut in response to carbohydrate intake . The peptide works by activating the GLP-1 receptors, which are widely distributed throughout the body, but are highly concentrated in the pancreas, gastrointestinal tract, adipose tissue, kidneys, and central nervous system .
By activating these receptors, liraglutide works to increase insulin secretion, decrease glucagon secretion, and slow down gastric emptying. For example, liraglutide's action on the pancreas involves the activation of the GLP-1 receptor on beta cells, which promotes insulin secretion, while activation of the receptor on alpha cells inhibits glucagon secretion . This dual action results in a net reduction in blood glucose levels.
The peptide also mimics the function of GLP-1 in the digestive system to slow gastric emptying, which helps to prevent spikes in blood glucose levels after meals . The interaction of the peptide with the GLP-1 receptors in the brain is also considered to play a major role in liraglutide's effect on appetite, and even holds promise as a tool to protect against certain neurodegenerative disorders.
Liraglutide Development and Structure
Liraglutide was first developed by the Danish pharmaceutical company Novo Nordisk in the 1990s, and research on the drug remains ongoing . The development of liraglutide was based on the discovery of GLP-1 and its role in regulating blood sugar levels as an incretin hormone.
However, unlike GLP-1, liraglutide has a longer half-life and increased stability in the body due to the addition of a fatty acid chain (palmitic acid) to the amino acid lysine in position 26 of the GLP-1 sequence . This modification also improves the binding of liraglutide to the GLP-1 receptor, enhancing its potential effects.
Since 2010, liraglutide has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for use in combination with diet and exercise to improve blood sugar control in type 2 diabetes . The peptide is also approved as a chronic weight management treatment in patients aged 12 or above who are overweight or obese. As a prescription medication, it is available under brand names Victoza, Saxenda, and others.
While liraglutide is best known for its role in glycemic control, decreasing blood sugar levels, and as a chronic weight management tool, it is also being investigated for its potential use in other conditions such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, cardiovascular disease, and even Parkinson's .
In summation, liraglutide holds great promise for research across a range of potential uses. To that end, it is available to qualified researchers as a research chemical for laboratory experimentation.
Let's take a more detailed look at the main benefits of this GLP-1 agonist.
Benefits of Liraglutide
Preliminary and clinical studies alike have uncovered numerous potential benefits of liraglutide.
Some of the key benefits of the peptide include its effects on weight loss, glycemic control, pancreatic function, cardiovascular health, and neuroprotection.
Increased Weight Loss
Several large studies have shown that liraglutide can lead to significant weight loss in both type 2 diabetics and non-diabetics . One of the largest trials is a 56-week randomized study that involved 846 participants with obesity and type 2 diabetes from nine countries. The participants were given once-daily 3 mg or 1.8 mg of liraglutide, or placebo. The results showed that the 3 mg dose was most effective at inducing weight loss and resulted in a weight reduction of 6% compared to 2% with placebo .
While the exact weight loss mechanism of liraglutide is still under research, scientists suspect that it aids weight loss by suppressing appetite via the GLP-1 receptors in the brain . Some studies also suggest that by activating the GLP-1 receptors in adipose tissue, the peptide increases mitochondrial bioenergetics in fat cells and brown fat remodeling, which aids fat loss .
Improved Glycemic Control
Studies report that by activating the GLP-1 receptors in the pancreas, liraglutide stimulates the secretion of insulin, reduces glucagon in a glucose-dependent manner, and significantly improves levels of HbA1C . This glucose-dependent mechanism of insulin release of liraglutide gives it a low risk of hypoglycemia.
The peptide also slows down gastric emptying by about 23% after a meal, which helps prevent blood sugar spikes . Moreover, scientists suggest that liraglutide may increase the capacity of visceral fat to store lipids, thereby decreasing ectopic lipid accumulation to improve insulin sensitivity and glycemic control .
Healthy Pancreatic Function
Research reveals that liraglutide improves glycemic control in diabetes and also increases the mass of the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas through stimulation of beta-cell proliferation and inhibition of beta-cell apoptosis .
Studies in animal models report that the peptide protects beta-cells from apoptosis through inhibition of caspase-3 activation and stimulation of PI3-kinase-dependent AKT phosphorylation leading to the phosphorylation and inactivation of the pro-apoptotic protein BAD and inhibition of FoxO1 transcription factor . Therefore, liraglutide helps maintain healthy pancreatic function in obesity and type 2 diabetes.
Better Cardiovascular Health
Scientists are actively investigating the potential benefits of liraglutide in patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Most studies report significant benefits of the peptide for reducing blood pressure, improving cholesterol levels, and increasing heart-rate variability. For example, one study reported that the peptide was capable of lowering systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure from baseline to follow by -12.38 mmHg and -5.55 mmHg, respectively .
Liraglutide has shown promise as a neuroprotective peptide in murine models of Parkinson's Disease (PD). Animal experiments suggest that liraglutide is capable of reducing inflammation in the brain, which may provide these potential neuroprotective benefits . According to the researchers, liraglutide effects were mediated through AMPK/NF-κB signaling and resulted in improved mouse behavior and an increased number of neurons in the substantia nigra, while reducing inflammation in the brain.
Potential Side Effects of Liraglutide
Liraglutide, like any other medication or research peptides, can potentially cause side effects. According to research, some of the most common side effects associated with liraglutide include nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, constipation, and stomach pain .
Other potential side effects may include increased heart rate, decreased appetite, and injection site reactions such as redness, swelling, or itching.
In rare cases, research reveals that liraglutide may cause more serious side effects like pancreatitis, gallbladder disease, or cholestasis. Symptoms of these more serious side effects may include severe abdominal pain, vomiting, fever, and yellowing of the skin or eyes .
Researchers are also investigating if liraglutide increases the risk of certain malignancies that can affect the thyroid, breast tissue, and the pancreas .
Liraglutide Dosage Calculator
There are specific recommendations to be followed when dosing liraglutide injections in experimental settings and researching its weight loss effects in test subjects:
- The maximum recommended dosage of liraglutide for weight loss research in test subjects is 3 mg/day . It is designed for once-daily administration at regular times due to its half-life of 13 hours. It can be administered at any time of the day, with or without meals. Liraglutide dosage for weight loss can be titrated down if the test subject experiences adverse reactions.
- Liraglutide 3 mg/day is not a suitable starting daily dosage due to an increased risk of side effects in test subjects. Instead, the liraglutide dosage for weight loss should be increased gradually over the course of five weeks, starting from 0.6 mg/day in week one, 1.2 mg/day in week two, 1.8 mg/day in week three, 2.4 mg/day in week four, before finally reaching the full dose of 3 mg/day for week five and beyond .
- Liraglutide injections must be administered in test subjects subcutaneously, using appropriate syringes and needles for subcutaneous injections. The most appropriate area is the abdomen, at least 2 inches (5 cm) away from the belly button.
- Do not administer liraglutide injections into the belly button of test subjects or into areas with scar tissue, bruises, reddening, infection, or irritation. Rotate injection sites and do not repeatedly inject into the same exact spot due to a risk of scarring and hardening of fatty tissue that will interfere with liraglutide absorption .
- Avoid administering liraglutide concurrently with other anti-diabetic medications, such as insulin, due to an increased risk of hypoglycemia. Liraglutide slows down gastric emptying during the first hour after an injection, which may interfere with the metabolism of other medications.
Sample Liraglutide Dosing Protocol for Weight Loss Research
For reference purposes, here is a sample liraglutide dosing protocol for weight loss research :
- Dose: 0.6 mg/day for week one, before increasing the dosage to 1.2 mg/day for week two, 1.8 mg/day for week three, 2.4 mg/day for week four, and 3.0 mg/day for week five and beyond.
- Frequency: Administer liraglutide as a subcutaneous injection once per day at regular times.
- Study Duration: 20-64 weeks.
- Notes: Researchers are advised to avoid exceeding a daily liraglutide dose of 3 mg.
Liraglutide Cycle Length?
As of publication, the longest duration that liraglutide has been tested in subjects for weight loss has been 64 weeks (15 months) . In the 15-month trial, subjects were given the maximum approved dosage for weight loss, which is 3 mg/day. During this period, the safety profile of liraglutide was comparable to placebo and other GLP-1 agonists, which suggests that liraglutide can be safely used for an extended period of time. The subjects lost a mean of 6.8kg of body weight, compared to a mean of 1.4kg for placebo, as of study completion.
Liraglutide has also been administered safely to subjects participating in weight loss research for periods of up to 260 weeks (60 months) but at lower doses of 1.8 mg/day .
How to Reconstitute Liraglutide
Liraglutide, for research purposes, is typically sold as a lyophilized powder that must be reconstituted with a sterile solvent before use. While sterile water is one option, using bacteriostatic water that prolongs the shelf-life of the peptide is recommended.
Bacteriostatic water contains 0.9% benzyl alcohol, which has no toxicity at these concentrations and suppresses the growth of microorganisms . It has a shelf life of four weeks after opening if refrigerated.
In comparison, sterile water does not suppress microbial growth, and any peptide reconstituted with sterile water becomes unsuitable for use after 24 hours, even if refrigerated.
Bacteriostatic water increases the shelf-life of peptides by up to 4 weeks if refrigerated properly at 2 to 8 degrees C (36 to 46 degrees F). Freezing reconstituted peptides should be avoided as it renders them inactive, regardless of the solvent.
Materials for Reconstitution
The appropriate reconstitution of liraglutide requires the following materials:
- Vial of bacteriostatic water
- Vial of lyophilized liraglutide powder
- A sterile syringe of at least 3cc
- Sterile 1″ 20-gauge needle
- Alcohol swabs
- Disposable sharps container
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Here is a detailed guide for researchers on how to reconstitute liraglutide step-by-step:
- Step #1: Allow the vials to reach room temperature before mixing liraglutide. It is important to keep them away from direct light or heat sources.
- Step #2: Before use, disinfect the stoppers of both vials using the alcohol wipes to prevent bacterial contamination and eliminate the risk of subsequent infections.
- Step #3:Draw 1 ml of air into the sterile syringe. Attach the needle and inject 1 ml of air into the vial with the diluent to make the fluid easier to withdraw. Then withdraw the correct amount of bacteriostatic water.
- Step #4: Insert the needle into the vial with lyophilized liraglutide and slowly inject the bacteriostatic water while directing the tip of the needle at the wall of the vial to prevent foaming. Then discard the needle and the syringe into the sharps container.
- Step #5: Use sonication if available to speed up the dissolution process. If not, gently roll it between your hands or swirl the vial to dissolve the liraglutide properly. Avoid shaking the vial. Shaking or forceful tapping can damage the peptide structure and render it ineffective. Also, avoid tapping the syringe when removing the air before injection.
- Step #6: Check if the liquid is clear, turbid, or if there are any particles. If the solution is cloudy, it's not suitable for injection and should be discarded.
- Step #7: The exact dosage and storage recommendations may vary. Always refer to the specific product label for accurate information.
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Where to Buy Liraglutide Online? | 2023 Edition
To ensure quality and safety in research, researchers are advised to obtain liraglutide strictly from a reputable vendor specializing in research peptides.
In this regard, Peptide Sciences stands out as the preferred supplier of liraglutide for the Peptides.org team and the wider scientific community.
With a wealth of knowledge and expertise, Peptide Sciences supplies researchers across the globe with pharmaceutical-grade liraglutide, earning a sterling reputation within the research peptides community.
The advantages of choosing Peptide Sciences as a supplier include:
- Third-party tested liraglutide: To provide researchers with transparent data on the contents and purity of each vial, Peptide Sciences sends in each batch of liraglutide for meticulous testing by an independent, third-party laboratory utilizing cutting-edge HPLC-MS analysis.
- Liraglutide made in the USA: Peptide Sciences sources all products from accredited partners based in the United States, providing researchers with additional confidence that the peptides they receive are genuine, effective, and safe to administer for research purposes.
- Quick Shipping: US-based researchers will receive their orders within 2-3 business days, while researchers based outside the US will receive their orders within 10 business days. Furthermore, all orders above $200 are free of the regular $15 fee.
- Responsive Customer Service: For any questions or concerns, Peptide Sciences offers dedicated customer service accessible via email or phone, with a prompt response time of just one business day.
For those seeking a reliable source of liraglutide, Peptide Sciences stands out as the most trusted vendor within the research community.
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Liraglutide Dosing Guide | Verdict
Liraglutide is a GLP-1 agonist that has been approved for the management of both type 2 diabetes and chronic weight issues. Although the peptide has proven to be effective in weight loss and blood sugar management contexts, its mechanisms and potential benefits remain under investigation.
For example, the peptide is also studied for its potential benefits to the cardiovascular system, liver, central nervous system, and pancreatic health.
Researchers seeking to explore the potential of liraglutide should follow standard peptide reconstitution guidelines and adopt a prudent dosing schedule.