Titus Thorne

Last Updated April 9, 2022

Titus Thorne

 April 9, 2022

Peptide researchers interested in working with TB-500 may be curious about the right TB-500 dosage to use for their next experiment. 

Several animal studies have shown that TB-500 can reduce inflammation, hasten healing times, and potentially reduce recovery times, yet little is known about how it may be dosed in human test subjects. 

Despite strong research interest in the application of TB-500 for healing, there is a distinct lack of published data regarding the dosage at which this peptide may be administered to this end. 

This A-Z guide will outline the main benefits and side effects associated with TB-500 and summarize the main ways it has been dosed in past studies. 

Researchers planning to work with TB-500 can find full details of our preferred peptide vendor at the end.  

Let’s begin!

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What is TB-500?

TB-500 is a peptide consisting of 43 amino acids. It is a synthetic version of the naturally occurring protein Thymosin Beta-4. that is encoded by the TMSB4X gene and is found in both human and animal cells.

Thymosin Beta-4 promotes a variety of essential biological functions such as [1]:

  • Lowered inflammation
  • Growth of new blood cells
  • Increased production of immune cells
  • Faster wound repair

Since Thymosin Beta-4 is naturally produced by the thymus gland in response to injury [2], researchers are actively investigating whether TB-500 accelerates the healing process in test subjects.

How does TB-500 work?

The main mechanism of action in TB-500 involves the upregulation of a cellular protein called “Actin”.

Actin plays a vital role in keeping the structural and functional integrity of cells intact, especially in muscle cells. This has led some researchers to theorize that TB-500 may increase the growth of new cells and hasten the healing of tissue injuries while improving muscle flexibility.

Due to the low molecular weight of TB-500, it is extremely mobile. Animal studies have shown that TB-500 can selectively upregulate Actin at the site of injury in animal models.

TB-500 in horse racing

Research has shown that TB-500 is commonly used in horse racing as a doping drug [3], and active efforts are currently underway to completely ban its use from this sport [4]:

Under Australia’s strict drug-free racing policy, anyone found guilty of injecting TB-500 into a racehorse would receive a minimum period of disqualification of two years:

“We have been aware of this substance for a number of years and we are confident we have the strategies and testing capabilities to control it.
“This drug has no place in racing, its use is easily detected in the thoroughbred and its administration to a racehorse would be viewed very seriously.”

TB-500 in athletics

While TB-500 is a research chemical with no recognized therapeutic use in humans, it has been banned by all major sporting organizations [5]:

“Indeed, TB-500 packages have recently been confiscated by the Belgian Customs during a routine control.

The case has received worldwide attention from the media since it was connected to a professional athlete which was still employed by his team, who declared that the product was for personal use.

In another case, a former team doctor was arrested in possession of the substance.

There are very few scientifically validated reports of TB-500 use in humans. The earliest one involves a 5-year-old girl who received a TB-500 injection in 1974 due to a dysfunctional thymus gland [6].

To date, the majority of studies involving TB-500 have been conducted in animal models and cell cultures. We will explore the documented effects of TB-500 in the following section.


tb-500


Benefits of Thymosin Beta-4

Studies involving animal models and human research subjects have found that Thymosin Beta-4 produces several statistically significant effects. These effects are summarized below. 

Thymosin Beta-4 may help repair heart muscles

An in vivo study involving heart cells found that Thymosin Beta-4 may be effective in healing heart injuries [7].

In particular, Thymosin Beta-4 was able to stimulate vessel growth while simultaneously preventing the death of heart cells.

One of the few clinical trials involving humans was actually able to replicate this finding in patients with myocardial infarction [8]:

“The pilot study, the first human study conducted with Tβ4 in patients following a heart attack, demonstrates the potential clinical benefits of Tβ4 in repairing and regenerating damaged tissue and improving cardiac function.

This important advance not only elaborates on data generated in previous animal studies, but also reflects the need to conduct larger clinical trials with Tβ4 in these patients”

Not only were the patients’ hearts more efficient at pumping blood, but they experienced no complications whatsoever up to six months following Thymosin Beta-4 treatment.

Thymosin Beta-4 may accelerate healing from traumatic brain injury (TBI)

A 2012 paper reported rapid cognitive recovery in rats with traumatic brain injury (TBI) [9].

As early as six hours following injury, rats treated with Thymosin Beta-4 experienced functional recovery, and the creation of new brain cells and blood vessels took place as early as 24 hours post-injury.

Thymosin Beta-4 could be used to treat eye problems

As early as 2007, Thymosin Beta-4 was being examined as a potential clinical solution to repair eye damage [10].

Some of the applications speculated include:

  • Diabetic eye disease
  • Faster healing from cataract surgery
  • Dry eyes
  • Chemical injuries

A Phase II clinical trial involving human test subjects found Thymosin Beta-4 eye drops to be effective for treating severe dry eye [11].

In total, nine treated patients had significantly reduced discomfort and improved tear volume production, even 28 days following treatment. 

Thymosin Beta-4 is useful for treating skin wounds that don’t heal

In preclinical animal studies involving various kinds of rats and mice (steroid-injected, old, diabetic), Thymosin Beta-4 was shown to be effective in healing skin wounds [12].

The same review also examined two Phase II clinical trials involving patients with ulcers.

Test subjects that received Thymosin Beta-4 experienced a healing process that was a month faster than those in the placebo group. 

The authors also noted how Thymosin Beta-4 was able to inhibit further inflammation and infection.

So as an inflammatory agent, Thymosin Beta-4 shows great promise for future studies in test subjects.

Thymosin Beta-4 may treat joint inflammation

Even in animal studies, the science on this is not clear.

According to a 2017 review of Thymosin Beta-4 and rheumatoid arthritis, there are a handful of studies touting Thymosin Beta-4 exhibiting anti-inflammatory effects [13].

However, there were a fair number of reports saying Thymosin Beta-4 increases the secretion of pro-inflammatory compounds.

And while increased Thymosin Beta-4 expression is uniformly seen in the joint fluid of rheumatoid arthritis patients, it is uncertain whether this outcome is beneficial or harmful. This indicates that further research in this area may be warranted. 

Thymosin Beta-4 could heal ligament injuries

A rat study involving the local administration of Thymosin Beta-4 discovered that Thymosin Beta-4 has “potential clinical use in repairing ligaments” [14].

After transecting the medial collateral ligament (MCL) in rats and treating rats with Thymosin Beta-4 a month, the treated rats had significantly better biomechanics function.

Moreover, the collagen fibers within the treated rats were uniform and evenly spaced out.

This implies that Thymosin Beta-4 heals wounds and injuries in a way where normal physical movement can be restored.

Let’s now turn our attention to TB-500 dosage and how researchers may calculate it in a research setting. 

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TB-500 Dosage Calculator and Guide

When it comes to choosing the TB-500 dosage for an experiment, there are a few things researchers need to know about.

First, access to a TB-500 dosage calculator is advisable to ensure that the correct preparations are undertaken [15].

TB-500 is typically packaged in the form of a lyophilized powder. Therefore, it needs to be reconstituted with bacteriostatic water before it can be administered to test subjects via intravenous, intramuscular, or subcutaneous injection. 

Second, researchers must ensure that materials are stored correctly. 

The TB-500 powder itself should be kept in a room that is dry, cool, and pitch black.

After the powder is reconstituted, the vial itself needs to be stored in a refrigerator to avoid any potential degradation.

Third, TB-500 must be available in sufficient quantities to last for the entire duration of the experiment. 

This way, researchers can monitor how test subjects respond to the TB-500 dose and adjust accordingly.

Lastly, it’s important to remember that test subjects will respond to a TB-500 dose differently. Some may notice the effects taking place much faster or slower compared. 

Unlike some other peptides, there is no “standardized dose” for TB-500 and no “safe” or “recommended” level. 

What little research exists largely involves animal models or test subjects and results from these studies cannot be extrapolated to humans. 

For example, a TB-500 dosage of 7.66 mg per week for a 200-pound male test subject on the basis of how it is administered to greyhound dogs would be unworkable [16].

With that being said, what’s the best TB-500 dosing strategy for a researcher who is experimenting with this peptide for the very first time?


tb-500


TB-500 For Beginners

Researchers interested in experimenting with TB-500 for the first time may consult the loading protocol for creatine monohydrate [17]:

“…a common approach is to take 20 grams of creatine daily for 5–7 days. This dose is typically divided into four 5-gram servings throughout the day.

Research shows that this regimen can effectively boost creatine stores by 10–40%.

After the loading phase, you can maintain your creatine stores by taking a lower dose of creatine, which ranges from 2–10 grams daily”

Based on this regimen, here’s what a TB-500 loading cycle would look like for treating an injury in an animal [9]:

Loading Phase

  • 1-3mg of TB-500
  • 2-3 times every 2 weeks
  • Continued until injury completely heals

Maintenance Phase

  • 2-5 mg of TB-500
  • 2 times per week
  • 4-6 weeks

Researchers may wait for the test subjects to become accustomed to higher Thymosin Beta-4 concentrations before transitioning towards a maintenance dose.

Below, we will look at past studies to see the TB-500 dosages used by researchers. 


TB-500 For Healing

TB-500 has shown potential in healing injuries within experimental animal models [18].

A number of rat studies have shown that Thymosin Beta-4 accelerates wound treatment [19]. And some animal studies even put forth the idea of Thymosin Beta-4 offering rapid pain relief [20].

According to Kleinman et al., while TB-500 is “likely to have additional uses in the skin and in injured organs for tissue repair and regeneration” there is no research showing what dosage it may be administered to this end. 


TB-500 For Muscle Growth

One purported effect of TB-500 is muscle growth. 

Here’s a short list of some of the TB-500 effects observed in racehorses [21]:

  • Increased endurance
  • Increased strength
  • Increased muscle growth
  • Improved flexibility of joints
  • Improved muscle tone

These findings cannot be extrapolated to humans, suggesting that further research in this area is warranted. 

Studies involving human test subjects have shown that TB-500 causes the up-regulation of Actin and promotes cell proliferation. 

Although TB-500 is banned from sports [22], there is no evidence linking it to muscle growth in human test subjects. 

Clearly, further investigation is required in this area regarding TB-500’s effects on research subjects. 


TB-500 For Hair Growth

Findings from three animal studies involving rats and mice linked Thymosin Beta-4 to hair growth [23, 24, 25]. These claims have yet to be evaluated in humans and there is no research showing that it has this effect in test subjects. 

While TB-500 has been shown to have many activities important in tissue protection, repair, and regeneration, there is currently no research that has examined its use for hair growth.


Where to Buy TB-500 Online?

Despite having no recognized therapeutic use, TB-500 is available online and may be purchased by researchers for experimentation. 

Unfortunately, not all peptide vendors operate at the same high standard and many researchers are curious about where to buy TB-500 online. 

After extensively vetting numerous vendors, our team has identified Peptide Sciences as the best place to buy TB-500 online for research purposes. 

Peptides Sciences is a premier research peptides company that specializes in the synthesis of highly purified peptides, proteins, and amino acid derivatives. Every product is created for the sole purpose of scientific research and development.

Using automated manual synthesizers, Peptide Sciences offers the finest quality peptides and offers 99%+ pure TB-500. All peptides are free from fillers or binding agents, like mannitol, and each batch is lab-tested to verify its purity. 

​Plus, all peptides created and sold by Peptide Sciences are 100% TFA-free. Trifluoroacetic acid is found in many of the peptides from low-quality vendors who import from China. While not getting too deep into the science here, TFA can be exceptionally dangerous.

Overall, researchers looking to purchase TB-500 may contact Peptide Sciences.

Of course, other materials are required: Bacteriostatic water, syringes, ​and needles.

Buy TB-500 from our #1 recommended vendor...


Thymosin Beta-4 and BPC-157?

One peptide combination that many researchers are currently interested in is Thymosin Beta-4 and BPC-157.

In short, BPC stands for “Body Protecting Compound” and BPC-157 is a much shorter peptide at 15 amino acids long.

And unlike Thymosin Beta-4, BPC-157 is produced in the body’s digestive tract.

But there are some similarities.

BPC-157 may help connective tissues heal much faster, while also improving digestive health and treating ulcer damage.

Both BPC-157 and Thymosin Beta-4 have been shown to offer anti-inflammatory benefits in animal studies and have been investigated as potential treatments for muscle injuries.

Researchers interested in exploring any potential synergistic benefits of BPC-157 and Thymosin Beta-4 may be interested to learn that Peptide Sciences offers ​this mixed peptide blend for research purposes. 


tb-500


TB-500 Dosing | Verdict ​

When it comes to choosing the right TB-500 dosage for experimentation, very little research exists to show how this research chemical may be dosed in human test subjects. 

While there are indeed some animal studies showing purported TB-500 benefits such as accelerated healing, these findings have yet to be examined in clinical trials. 

Hopefully, this guide has illuminated key areas where further TB-500 investigation may be warranted and provided researchers with a useful starting point for future studies. 

Those interested in working with TB-500 may consider contacting Peptide Sciences for their research needs.

Buy TB-500 from our #1 recommended vendor...


References

  1. Pharmaceutical Crime. Retrieved February 10, 2020. unodc.org
  2. Tokura Y, Nakayama Y, Fukada S, et al. Muscle injury-induced thymosin β4 acts as a chemoattractant for myoblasts. J Biochem. 2011;149(1):43-8. doi:10.1093/jb/mvq115
  3. What is TB-500? Retrieved February 9, 2020. users.skynet.be​
  4. Even horses don’t use banned drugs. Retrieved February 11, 2020. dailytelegraph.com.au
  5. TB-500: from horseracing to doping. Retrieved February 8, 2020. Dshs-koeln.de.
  6. To Heather, Happiness Is a Hormone Called Thymosin. Retrieved February 10, 2020. People.com
  7. Shrivastava S, Srivastava D, Olson EN, et al. Thymosin beta4 and cardiac repair.Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2010;1194:87-96. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2010.05468.x.
  8. Thymosin Beta 4 Effective in Treatment of Heart Attack Patients. Retrieved February 7, 2020. regenerx.com
  9. Xiong Y, Mahmood A, Meng Y, et al. Neuroprotective and neurorestorative effects of thymosin β4 treatment following experimental traumatic brain injury. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2012;1270:51–58. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2012.06683.x
  10. Sosne G, Qiu P, Kurpakus-Wheater M. Thymosin beta 4: A novel corneal wound healing and anti-inflammatory agent. Clin Ophthalmol. 2007;1(3):201–207.
  11. Sosne G, Dunn S, Crockford D, et al. Thymosin Beta 4 Eye Drops Significantly Improve Signs and Symptoms of Severe Dry Eye in a Physician-Sponsored Phase 2 Clinical Trial. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013;54(15):6033. doi:https://doi.org/​
  12. Treadwell T, Kleinman HK, Crockford D. The regenerative peptide thymosin β4 accelerates the rate of dermal healing in preclinical animal models and in patients. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2012;1270:37-44. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2012.06717.x.
  13. Kim KS, Yang HI. Thymosin β4 in rheumatoid arthritis: Friend or foe. Biomed Rep. 2017;7(3):205–208. doi:10.3892/br.2017.952
  14.  Xu B, Yang M, Li Z, et al. Thymosin β4 enhances the healing of medial collateral ligament injury in rat. Regul Pept. 2013;184:1-5. doi:10.1016/j.regpep.2013.03.026
  15. Peptide Mixing and Dosing Calculator. Retrieved February 11, 2020. 112.196.20.91/realpeptide​
  16. How To Build New Blood Vessels, Regenerate Muscle Tissue Fibers, Increase New Cell Growth & More With Something Called “TB-500”. Retrieved February 7, 2020. bengreenfieldfitness.com​
  17. Is the Creatine Loading Phase Necessary? Retrieved February 11, 2020. healthline.com​
  18. Philp D, Kleinman HK. Animal studies with thymosin β4, a multifunctional tissue repair and regeneration peptide. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2010;1194:81.86. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2010.05479.x
  19. Malinda KM, Sidhu GS, Mani H, et al. Thymosin beta4 accelerates wound healing. J Invest Dermatol. 1999;113(3):364-8. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1747.1999.00708.x
  20. Wan J, Ding Y, Nan S, et al. Thymosin Beta 4 Is Involved in the Development of Electroacupuncture Tolerance. Front Cell Neurosci. 2019;13:75. Published 2019 Mar 26. doi:10.3389/fncel.2019.00075
  21. Professional Monograph: Thymosin Beta 4 (Tb4). Retrieved February 10, 2020. northamptonintegrativemedicine.com
  22. THYMOSIN-BETA 4: THE DRUG THAT CHANGED THE AFL. Retrieved February 11, 2020. doctusproject.com​
  23. Philp D, St-Surin S, Cha HJ, et al. Thymosin beta 4 induces hair growth via stem cell migration and differentiation. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007;1112:95-103. doi:10.1196/annals.1415.009
  24. Philp D, Nguyen M, Scheremeta B, et al. Thymosin β4 increases hair growth by activation of hair follicle stem cells. FASEB J. 2004;18(2):385-7. doi:10.1096/fj.03-0244fje
  25. Gao X, Liang H, Hou F, et al. Thymosin Beta-4 Induces Mouse Hair Growth. PLoS One. 2015;10(6):e0130040. Published 2015 Jun 17. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0130040

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