Thymosin Alpha-1 Dosage Calculator and Guide | What Researchers Must Know

Thymosin Alpha-1 Dosage Calculator

Titus Thorne

Last Updated December 15, 2022

Titus Thorne

 December 15, 2022

Looking for the ideal thymosin alpha-1 dosage? Inside, researchers will find everything they must know about dosing this powerful peptide.

Researchers looking for novel ways to boost immune function might be interested to learn about thymosin alpha-1, a peptide fragment found in thymus gland tissue.

Apart from reading up on the peptide’s potential uses, researchers may be curious about the appropriate thymosin alpha-1 dosage to administer to test subjects.

Below, we present an overview of thymosin alpha-1, including a sample dosage protocol and our top pick of where to buy thymosin alpha-1 online.

Buy Thymosin Alpha-1 from our #1 recommended vendor...

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What is Thymosin Alpha-1?

Thymosin alpha-1 (TA-1) is a potent immune function regulator that was initially identified in 1972 and extracted from thymus gland tissue. This peptide is composed of a 28-part chain of amino acids.

The thymus gland, a lymphoid structure situated in the upper region of the chest in front of the heart, secretes the hormone thymosin in the body. After peaking in childhood, secretion begins to diminish during puberty [1].

The immune system is naturally regulated by thymosin alpha-1, as it controls the production and maturation of T-cells. The thymus gland discharges T-cells in the lymphatic system, which disperse to numerous regions of the body to provide defense against viruses and diseases. TA-1 also helps to replenish white blood cells. Even if the thymus gland has been impaired due to injury or developmental issues, thymosin alpha-1 can still provide enhanced immunity [2].

The peptide has been researched for wide-ranging therapeutic applications including cystic fibrosis, chronic hepatitis, respiratory problems, and infections like tuberculosis and cytomegalovirus. While currently approved for the treatment of such conditions in developing countries, it has not been approved for use by the United States Food and Drug Administration.


Thymosin Alpha-1 Dosage Calculator


Thymosin Alpha-1 Benefits

Clinical trials involving TA-1 have been conducted since 1985, with several noting the peptide’s powerful benefits for the immune system and anti-inflammation activity.

Thymosin Alpha-1 for improved healing

In wound healing processes, the body’s lymphoid cells release soluble factors that attract fibroblasts and macrophages, thereby triggering repair, endothelial cell migration, angiogenesis, and matrix production.

One study analyzed the effect of thymosin alpha-1 on endothelial cell migration, angiogenesis, and wound healing, showing that the peptide stimulated angiogenesis in a subcutaneous model. Researchers also noted that topical application of TA-1 accelerated wound healing in a punch model [3].

Another study involving 73 volunteers investigated the effects of thymosin alpha 1 on the reimplantation of avulsed teeth. The subjects were monitored and split into two control groups—a thymosin alpha-1 group and placebo. The TA-1 group exhibited lower interferon, tumor necrosis factor α, and interleukin-6 levels, as well as higher white blood cell levels compared to placebo. Overall, the TA-1 group demonstrated “greater periodontal healing…and greater lifetime of the replanted teeth,” among other benefits [4].

Thymosin Alpha-1 and the immune system

Researchers have noted that illnesses resulting from deficient immune responses are associated with substantially lower TA-1 serum levels compared to healthy individuals. The same expert group concluded that low levels of thymosin alpha-1 in the body can lead to impaired immune function and greater vulnerability to disease [5].

Myeloid and dendritic cells (DC) both act as TLR-9 and TLR-2 agonists in response to thymosin alpha-1. The peptide can boost the adaptive immune response by targeting TLRs, which is necessary for combating viral, bacterial, fungal, and other infections [2, 6, 7].

TA-1 can also stimulate posterior humoral immunity and raise levels of interferon (IFN)-, IFN-, IL-2, IL-10, and IL-12. It has also been suggested as a vaccine adjuvant for improving response to vaccines due to its ability to promote T-cell dependent antibody production [8].

Thymosin Alpha-1 reduces inflammation

Thymosin alpha-1 has been shown to regulate inflammatory response while reducing reactive oxygen species production [9].

Studies have also demonstrated that this peptide can offer neuronal protection and reduce the upregulation of CFA-induced inflammatory mediators interferon (IFN)-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α and brain-derived neurotrophic factor [10, 11, 12].

In particular, one study conducted on rodents with acute liver failure showed that injections of thymosin alpha-1 resulted in extended lifespan and reduced liver inflammation [13].


Thymosin Alpha-1 Side Effects

Recommended dosages of thymosin alpha-1 delivered subcutaneously have been deemed safe in a variety of contexts. Having been in use for over 40 years, the peptide has exhibited a favorable safety profile in various patient populations and does not induce any of the adverse effects or toxicity typically observed with immunomodulatory agents.

A worldwide yearly survey on adverse drug reactions and interactions found that thymosin alpha-1 has had a favorable adverse reactions profile in over 2000 individuals treated to date [1].

Researchers should note that thymosin alpha-1 used in combination with Interferon-Alpha 2b (IFN- 2b) has resulted in greater incidence of fever, fatigue, muscle aches, nausea, vomiting, and neutropenia than with IFN- 2b alone [14].

Notably, thymosin alpha-1 is well-tolerated in patients with liver disease and kidney illness who need hemodialysis [15, 16].

The most commonly reported adverse effects of thymosin alpha-1 are [15, 17]:

  • Localized irritation
  • Redness
  • Fever
  • Fatigue
  • Muscle aches
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Neutropenia

Thymosin Alpha-1 Dosage Calculator and Guide

In this section, we provide thymosin alpha-1 dosage tips and a sample protocol, with reference to the available TA-1 literature to date.

Thymosin Alpha-1 Administration Notes

Thymosin alpha-1 is typically available in injectable form, but it can also be purchased as a spray for nasal administration.

TA-1 is typically administered to subjects via subcutaneous injection [14].

It’s important to note that a thymosin alpha-1 dosage is able to achieve peak serum concentration in as little as two hours, which is also the half-life of this peptide. A return to baseline blood levels can be observed within 24 hours [14].

Sample Thymosin Alpha-1 Dosage Protocol

For reference purposes, here is a sample thymosin alpha-1 dosage protocol that may be administered to observe accelerated cellular repair in subjects:

  • Daily Dosage: 500mcg of thymosin-alpha 1, delivered via subcutaneous injection.
  • Frequency: Once daily.
  • Study Duration: Administer thymosin alpha-1 dosage until inflammation in the affected area has subsided.
  • Notes: While side effects are rare, administration should be discontinued upon excessive swelling or irritation. One 10mg vial of thymosin alpha-1 suffices for a 20 day course following this protocol.

Thymosin Alpha-1 Dosage Calculator


Where to Buy Thymosin Alpha-1 Online? | 2023 Edition

Due to increased interest in thymosin alpha-1, a number of vendors now sell this peptide online. However, some peptide manufacturers may neglect to adhere to strict protocols, resulting in impure products and dissatisfied customers.

To determine which peptide vendor delivers the best value, our team has made test orders from several companies to assess factors such as peptide quality, shipping policies, and customer service.

Based on our expert survey, Peptide Sciences is the best source of thymosin alpha-1 online. They supply researchers across the world with thymosin alpha-1 that is 99 percent pure.

The following aspects of their service set them apart from other vendors:

  • World-Class Lab Testing: Each batch of thymosin alpha-1 is examined by an independent laboratory. This guarantees that researchers have a clear idea of exactly what they are purchasing.
  • Competitive Pricing: A 10mg vial of thymosin alpha-1 is priced at $130. However, discounts are available on high volume purchases. You can buy 5 10mg vials of thymosin alpha-1 for $125.00 each and save 4%, or buy 10 for $120.00 each and save 8%.
  • Domestic Production: All source materials used by Peptide Sciences have been manufactured in the United States using state-of-the-art solution and solid phase peptide synthetic technology. This eliminates the concern of obtaining low-purity or contaminated thymosin alpha-1 from a foreign supplier who may not follow industry best practices.
  • Fast Shipping: U.S. orders exceeding $200 qualify for free shipping. Otherwise, a flat fee of $15 applies. Domestic orders usually reach customers within two to three days, while international orders can take up to seven business days.
  • Customer Care: Researchers can email a specialized support team with any general or order-related inquiries and expect a personalized response within 1-2 business days.

If you are looking to purchase high-quality thymosin alpha-1 for your next study, we highly recommend Peptide Sciences.

Buy Thymosin Alpha-1 from our #1 recommended vendor...


Bacteriostatic Water for Injection

The next step in your research is to assemble your full toolkit for proper peptide handling. When preparing thymosin alpha-1, as well as injecting and storing the solution, you will need some essential materials.

These include alcohol wipes to sterilize surfaces, bacteriostatic water to reconstitute, and insulin syringes for prep and injection.

Acquiring all of these specialty supplies can be a challenge for some researchers, as there aren’t many retailers that carry the full range.

If you are facing this challenge, we are happy to offer a solution. To facilitate your research, we at Peptides.org have combed the web to pick a single outstanding supplier.

BacteriostaticWater.org

This online retailer tops our review list with its efficient supply kits adapted to the needs of researchers like you. The BacteriostaticWater.org catalog offers two convenient research kits that deliver all the essentials, sparing clients the annoyance of searching high and low for the required products.

A purchase of the starter research kit will equip you with:

  • Bacteriostatic Water (30mL) – 3x
  • Insulin Syringes (0.5 cc/mL x 29g x ½) – 100x
  • Alcohol Prep Pads – 200x
  • Sterile Empty Glass Vial (10mL) – 1x
  • Large Needles + Syringes Combo (3cc x 21g x 1) – 10x

Furnish your lab with the comprehensive premium research kit, containing:

  • Bacteriostatic Water (30mL) – 5x
  • Insulin Syringes (0.5 cc/mL x 29g x ½) – 200x
  • Alcohol Prep Pads – 200x
  • Sterile Empty Glass Vial (10mL) – 2x
  • Large Needles + Syringes Combo (3cc x 21g x 1) – 20x

You are guaranteed to enjoy the quality supply kits available from our top-rated source.

Buy Bacteriostatic Water from our #1 recommended vendor...


Thymosin Alpha-1 Dosing | Verdict

Thymosin alpha-1 is an immunomodulatory polypeptide that was first synthesized in 1972 and belongs to a group of substances known as biologic response modifiers. It is increasingly administered to provide support to the immune system and reduce inflammation in a variety of research contexts.

Subjects dealing with infections have been found to exhibit lower levels of circulating thymosin alpha-1 compared with healthy subjects. This has led researchers to look into thymosin alpha-1 as a means of strengthening the immune system.

The peptide is well-tolerated with few adverse effects reported when an appropriate thymosin alpha-1 dosage is administered.

If you are a researcher looking to explore the various effects of thymosin alpha-1, visit Peptide Sciences to make your purchase.


References

  1.  Thymosin alpha1. Thymosin Alpha1 – an overview | ScienceDirect Topics. (n.d.). Retrieved August 2, 2022, from https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/immunology-and-microbiology/thymosin-alpha1
  2. Wara, D. W., & Author Affiliations From the Department of Pediatrics. (n.d.). Thymosin activity in patients with cellular immunodeficiency: Nejm. New England Journal of Medicine. Retrieved August 3, 2022, from https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJM197501092920204
  3. Thymosin α1 Stimulates Endothelial Cell Migration, Angiogenesis, and Wound Healing. Katherine M. Malinda, Gurmel S. Sidhu, Krishna K. Banaudha, Jaya P. Gaddipati, Radha K. Maheshwari, Allan L. Goldstein, Hynda K. Kleinman. The Journal of Immunology January 15, 1998, 160 (2) 1001-1006;
  4. Loo, W. T. Y., Dou, Y. D., Chou, W. K. J., & Wang, M. (2008, June 3). Thymosin alpha 1 provides short-term and long-term benefits in the reimplantation of Avulsed Teeth: A double-blind randomized control pilot study. The American Journal of Emergency Medicine. Retrieved July 26, 2022, from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0735675707005992
  5. Pica F, Gaziano R, Casalinuovo IA, et al. Serum thymosin alpha 1 levels in normal and pathological conditions. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2018;18(sup1):13-21. doi:10.1080/14712598.2018.1474197
  6. Romani L, Bistoni F, Gaziano R, Bozza S, Montagnoli C, Perruccio K, Pitzurra L, Bellocchio S, Velardi A, Rasi G, Di Francesco P, Garaci E. thymosin alpha-1 activates dendritic cells for antifungal Th1 resistance through toll-like receptor signaling. Blood. 2004;103:4232–4239.
  7. Yao Q, Doan LX, Zhang R, Bharadwaj U, Li M, Chen C. Thymosin-alpha1 modulates dendritic cell differentiation and functional maturation from human peripheral blood CD14+ monocytes. Immunol Lett. 2007;110(2):110-120. doi:10.1016/j.imlet.2007.04.007
  8. Naylor PH, Quadrini K, Garaci E, Rasi G, Hadden JW. Immunopharmacology of thymosin alpha1 and cytokine synergy. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007;1112:235–244.
  9. Kharazmi-Khorassani J, Asoodeh A. Thymosin alpha-1; a natural peptide inhibits cellular proliferation, cell migration, the level of reactive oxygen species and promotes the activity of antioxidant enzymes in human lung epithelial adenocarcinoma cell line (A549). Environ Toxicol. 2019;34(8):941-949. doi:10.1002/tox.22765
  10. Xu, Y., Jiang, Y., Wang, L. et al. Thymosin Alpha-1 Inhibits Complete Freund’s Adjuvant-Induced Pain and Production of Microglia-Mediated Pro-inflammatory Cytokines in Spinal Cord. Neurosci. Bull. 35, 637–648 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12264-019-00346-z
  11. Huang, Jiahuaa; Jiang, Huaqinga; Pan, Meijuna; Jiang, Yanjunb; Xie, Lijinb Immunopotentiator thymosin alpha-1 attenuates inflammatory pain by modulating the Wnt3a/β-catenin pathway in spinal cord, NeuroReport: January 8, 2020 – Volume 31 – Issue 1 – p 69-75. doi: 10.1097/WNR.0000000000001370
  12. Thymosin alpha1: Isolation and sequence analysis of an … – PNAS. (n.d.). Retrieved July 26, 2022, from https://www.pnas.org/doi/10.1073/pnas.74.2.725
  13. Yang, X., Chen, Y., Zhang, J., Tang, T., Kong, Y., Ye, F. … Lin, S. (2018). Thymosin α1 treatment reduces hepatic inflammation and inhibits hepatocyte apoptosis in rats with acute liver failure. Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine, 15, 3231-3238. https://doi.org/10.3892/etm.2018.5843
  14. Thymosin alpha-1. Medscape. (2001, May 15). Retrieved August 3, 2022, from https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/406967?reg=1
  15. RxList. (2021, June 28). Side effects of zadaxin (Thymalfasin), warnings, uses. RxList. Retrieved July 26, 2022, from https://www.rxlist.com/zadaxin-side-effects-drug-center.htm
  16. Enrico Garaci (2018) From thymus to cystic fibrosis: the amazing life of thymosin alpha 1, Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy, 18:sup1, 9-11, DOI: 10.1080/14712598.2018.1484447

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