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MOTS-c is a recently discovered peptide that derives from a small protein encoded in the mitochondrial DNA and is involved in regulating metabolism and energy homeostasis. It has shown promising effects in preclinical studies, which have demonstrated its ability to improve metabolic health, enhance physical performance, and mitigate age-related decline in animal models.

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    What is MOTS-c?

    MOTS-c, short for "mitochondrial open reading frame of the 12S rRNA-c," is a small peptide derived from a specific region of the mitochondrial genome. Since its discovery, MOTS-c has garnered attention due to its potential role in regulating metabolism and age-related health [1].

    Within cells, particularly in the mitochondria, which are the energy-producing organelles, MOTS-c is believed to function as a signaling molecule. It has been found to impact various aspects of cellular metabolism, insulin sensitivity, mitochondrial function, and potentially aging-related processes [2].

    Research suggests that MOTS-c may have several beneficial effects, including improving glucose uptake and utilization, enhancing insulin sensitivity, promoting the formation of new mitochondria (mitochondrial biogenesis), and reducing oxidative stress.

    These effects could potentially contribute to better metabolic health and improved cellular function, with implications for conditions such as diabetes, obesity, and age-related diseases. Although the exact mechanisms of action for MOTS-c are still under investigation, initial studies indicate that it may have regulatory effects on cellular metabolism and mitochondrial function [3].

    Further research is necessary to fully comprehend its precise functions and explore potential therapeutic applications.

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    MOTS-c Benefits and Uses

    While research on MOTS-c is still in its early stages, several benefits and uses have been proposed based on initial findings.

    MOTS-c for Obesity

    In a study by Lee et al. (2015), mice receiving MOTS-c injections alongside a high-fat diet showed significant weight reduction compared to a group on a regular diet [2]. However, no weight reduction was observed as a result of administering MOTS-c to mice on the normal diet.

    These findings suggest potential implications of MOTS-c for weight management, particularly in the context of a high-fat diet [2]. Further research, including clinical trials, is necessary to determine its effectiveness and safety in humans.

    MOTS-c for Metabolic Disorders

    MOTS-c treatment in mice undergoing ovariectomy prevented obesity and insulin resistance by activating brown fat and reducing fat accumulation and inflammation.

    These findings indicate the potential benefits of MOTS-c in mitigating metabolic changes in postmenopausal women. However, further research is needed to fully understand its therapeutic implications for postmenopausal metabolic dysfunction [4].

    MOTS-c for Anti-Aging

    Aging is a complex process characterized by the deterioration of biological functions and reduced ability to handle metabolic stress. MOTS-c, a peptide, plays a role in healthy aging by enhancing mitochondrial fitness and physical capacity [5].

    It increases NAD+ levels, influences metabolic pathways, and improves physical performance in mice [5]. These findings suggest that MOTS-c could be a therapeutic target for promoting healthy aging and preventing age-related diseases, but more research is needed to understand its mechanisms and potential applications in humans.

    MOTS-c for Increased Muscle Performance

    During exercise, mitochondria are vital for supporting skeletal muscle function and transmitting exercise-induced signals. MOTS-c, in combination with exercise training, has been shown to enhance the expression of the PGC-1α gene, which governs mitochondrial biogenesis and energy metabolism [6].

    In mice, MOTS-c treatment activates skeletal muscle AMPK, a key exercise regulator, by increasing AICAR (an AMPK agonist) and GLUT4 levels. Similarly, regular aerobic exercise increases PGC-1α, GLUT4, and AMPK phosphorylation in mice [7].

    MOTS-c acts on exercise-sensitive signaling intermediates like AMPK, SIRT1, and PGC-1α, promoting fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial biogenesis to enhance muscle metabolic capacity [6].

    MOTS-c and exercise exhibit overlapping effects on genes related to angiogenesis, inflammation, and apoptosis, potentially reducing the risk of metabolic disorders and cardiovascular complications [8].

    Further research is required to fully grasp the mechanisms and therapeutic applications of MOTS-c and exercise.

    MOTS-c for Cardiovascular Function

    In a study by Quing Quin et al. (2018), patients with endothelial dysfunction (ED) had lower levels of MOTS-c in their plasma compared to those with normal endothelial function [9].

    Another study by Zhong et al. (2022) showed that MOTS-c peptide administration mitigated cardiac dysfunction and remodeling in a heart failure mouse model, reducing inflammation and activating the AMPK pathway [10].

    Other Potential Uses of MOTS-c

    • MOTS-c for Neurodegenerative Diseases
    • MOTS-c for Immunity
    • MOTS-c for Inflammation
    • MOTS-c for Osteoporosis
    • MOTS-c for Postmenopausal Disorders

    MOTS-c Side Effects and Safety

    To date, no significant adverse side effects have been reported in studies investigating MOTS-c. Animal studies and in vitro experiments have shown positive effects without apparent toxicity. However, further research is needed to assess the long-term safety and potential side effects in humans.

    A clinical study conducted by CohBar on a MOTS-c analog called CB4211 in individuals with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and obesity demonstrated good tolerability and safety, with no significant adverse effects reported [11]. These findings contribute to our understanding of the safety profile and potential therapeutic uses of MOTS-c analogs.

    As an injectable peptide, MOTS-c may have potential adverse effects, which can include:

    • Swelling
    • Irritation
    • Redness
    • Nodules
    • Pain
    • Discomfort
    • Discoloration at the injection site

    It is important to be aware of these potential risks when considering MOTS-c injections.

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    Dosing MOTS-c

    MOTS-c dosing in mice has been investigated in a few studies. The dosing regimens can vary depending on the specific experimental design, the desired outcome, and the age and strain of the mice used. Here are a couple of examples:

    • A study published in Cell Metabolism in 2015 investigated the effects of MOTS-c on age-related insulin resistance in mice. In this study, MOTS-c was administered to the mice via intraperitoneal (IP) injections. The dosing regimen used was 0.5 mg/kg body weight, three times per week, for a total of 12 weeks [2].
    • In another study published as part of the experiment, rats in the DM (diabetes mellitus) group were subjected to intraperitoneal injections of MOTS-c at a dosage of 0.5mg per kilogram of body weight per day. These injections were administered consistently for 7 days every week over 8 weeks [8].

    The dosing of MOTS-c in humans is still being investigated, and there is currently no standardized dosing regimen established. MOTS-c is a relatively new discovery, and its translation into clinical applications is in the early stages of research.

    Sample MOTS-c Dosing Protocol

    Here is a sample reference dosing for MOTS-c regimen that researchers may use for weight loss:

    • Protocol. MOTS-c Regimen for Weight Loss
    • Dosage. Administer 5mg of MOTS-c in the morning alongside the subject's first meal.
    • Frequency. Administer 5mg 3x weekly (M, W, F) for the first four weeks. Administer 5mg 1x weekly for the second four weeks.
    • Duration. Follow the regimen for eight weeks.
    • Notes. A total of 80mg MOTS-c is required for this protocol.


    • Strictly adhere to the dosage of 5mg.
    • Do not exceed the recommended dose unless warranted by the research objective.

    Lifestyle Modifications:

    • The subject should follow a balanced and healthy diet by consuming a variety of nutrient-dense foods, including fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and healthy fats. Limit the intake of processed foods, sugary snacks, and beverages.
    • The subject should engage in regular physical activity by incorporating cardiovascular exercises (such as brisk walking, jogging, or cycling) and strength training exercises (such as weightlifting or resistance training) into their routine.
    • The subject should maintain hydration by drinking an adequate amount of water throughout the day.

    Monitoring and Assessments:

    • Regularly track the subject’s weight, body measurements, and progress throughout the 8-week period.

    Potential Side Effects:

    • Although MOTS-c is generally considered safe, individual reactions may vary. Possible side effects may include mild gastrointestinal discomfort, headaches, or fatigue.
    • If any severe or persistent side effects occur, lower dose or discontinue treatment.

    Precautions and Contraindications:

    • Account for any existing medical conditions, allergies, or medications being taken before starting the MOTS-c regimen.

    Where to Buy MOTS-c Online? | 2024 Edition

    The expert reviewers at have scoured the net to bring the research community our top recommendation for reliably sourcing genuine MOTS-c online.

    Limitless Life

    Our top recommended choice for purchasing research-grade MOTS-c is none other than Limitless Life.

    Here’s a breakdown of why we love this vendor:

    World Class Lab Testing

    • Limitless Life ensures the highest quality standards by hiring a third-party laboratory to conduct HPLC-MS testing on all their products, including MOTS-c.
    • Their commitment to rigorous testing guarantees that all products listed meet purity and potency requirements, providing customers with confidence and peace of mind.

    Competitive Pricing

    • Limitless Life offers competitive pricing for MOTS-c, which is listed at $99.99 per 10mg vial, making it an attractive choice for customers.
    • Their pricing structure strikes a balance between affordability and quality, providing value for money and making MOTS-c accessible to a wider range of researchers.

    Domestic Production

    • Limitless Life sources their MOTS-c domestically, ensuring control over the production process.
    • Domestic production allows for stringent quality control measures and adherence to regulatory standards, resulting in a reliable and trustworthy product.

    Fast Shipping

    • Limitless Life prioritizes prompt delivery, aiming to provide customers with a seamless experience.
    • They have efficient shipping processes in place, ensuring that MOTS-c orders are processed and dispatched quickly, minimizing any potential delays. Plus, orders of $350+ ship free!

    Support and Service

    • Limitless Life places a strong emphasis on researcher satisfaction and support.
    • They have a dedicated care team available to address inquiries, provide assistance, and resolve any issues promptly and professionally.

    Given their world-class lab testing, competitive pricing, domestic production, fast shipping, and service, Limitless Life is a highly regarded choice for purchasing MOTS-c. Buy with confidence.

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    How Much Does MOTS-c Cost?

    To calculate the total cost of the MOTS-c, we need to consider the dosage, frequency, duration of treatment and quantities and prices of the products.

    MOTS-c Costs

    The cost of MOTS-c from our recommended vendor is as follows:

    • MOTS-c 10mg vial
      Cost: $99.99 per vial

    Total MOTS-c Dosage: The total dosage required for the above weight loss protocol is 80mg for a study duration of eight weeks.

    • Total number of MOTS-c vials needed = 8
    • Cost of MOTS-c: Cost per 10mg vial = $99.99; Number of vials needed = $99.99 * 8 = $799.92

    Therefore, the total cost of MOTS-c needed for the sample protocol is $799.92.


    How is MOTS-c administered?

    MOTS-c is typically administered through injections, either intraperitoneal (IP) or subcutaneous (SC), depending on the study protocol or clinical trial design.

    Are there any side effects associated with MOTS-c?

    To date, no significant adverse side effects have been reported in studies conducted on MOTS-c. However, individual responses may vary, and it is recommended to evaluate all risks before commencing MOTS-c experimentation.

    Is MOTS-c available for human use?

    Currently, MOTS-c is primarily being studied in preclinical and animal models. Further research, including clinical trials, is needed to evaluate its effectiveness and safety in humans. Where it is sold as a research chemical, MOTS-c is intended strictly for laboratory experimentation.

    How can MOTS-c be incorporated into a weight management regimen?

    While MOTS-c shows promise in weight management, it is important to note that it is still under investigation.

    Can MOTS-c be used as an anti-aging intervention?

    MOTS-c has been implicated in promoting healthy aging by improving mitochondrial function and cellular metabolism. However, more research is needed to fully understand its role and potential as an anti-aging intervention in humans.

    Are there any natural sources of MOTS-c?

    MOTS-c is a synthetic peptide derived from mitochondrial DNA. It is not naturally present in food sources nor commonly found in the human body.

    Can MOTS-c be used in combination with other therapies or supplements?

    The potential interactions of MOTS-c with other therapies or supplements are still being explored.

    Bacteriostatic Water For MOTS-c

    As well, all researchers must be equipped with the right tools to handle MOTS-c and other peptides.

    In order to correctly prepare and store peptides, supplies including bacteriostatic water, alcohol swabs, and more should be available.

    Overall, a research lab may need materials and supplies like these listed below and more:

    • Bacteriostatic Water
    • Alcohol Prep Pads
    • Sterile Empty Glass Vials

    For labs and researchers who do not have these materials, it is recommended to source from authorized vendors.

    MOTS-c For Sale | Overall

    MOTS-c is a small peptide molecule that optimizes mitochondrial function, enhancing cellular energy production and metabolic health. It occurs naturally and has several benefits. MOTS-c exhibits potential in the treatment of obesity and diabetes, while also potentially slowing down the aging process and supporting muscle health and recovery.

    If you're looking to purchase MOTS-c, Limitless Life is a highly reliable source that offers this product. This vendor is a reputable supplier of research chemicals and is recognized for its commitment to quality and satisfaction.


    1. Gao Y, Wei X, Wei P, Lu H, Zhong L, Tan J, Liu H, Liu Z. MOTS-c Functionally Prevents Metabolic Disorders. Metabolites. 2023 Jan 13;13(1):125.
    2. Lee C, Zeng J, Drew BG, Sallam T, Martin-Montalvo A, Wan J, et al. The mitochondrial-derived peptide MOTS-c promotes metabolic homeostasis and reduces obesity and insulin resistance. Cell Metab. 2015;21(3):443–54.
    3. Mohtashami Z, Singh MK, Salimiaghdam N, Ozgul M, Kenney MC. MOTS-c, the Most Recent Mitochondrial Derived Peptide in Human Aging and Age-Related Diseases. Int J Mol Sci 2022 Oct 9;23(19):11991.
    4. Lu H, Wei M, Zhai Y, Li Q, Ye Z, Wang L, Luo W, Chen J, Lu Z. MOTS-c peptide regulates adipose homeostasis to prevent ovariectomy-induced metabolic dysfunction. J Mol Med (Berl). 2019 Apr;97(4):473-485.
    5. D’Souza, R.F.; Woodhead, J.S.; Hedges, C.P.; Zeng, N.; Wan, J.; Kumagai, H.; Lee, C.; Cohen, P.; Cameron-Smith, D.; Mitchell, C.J.; et al. Increased expression of the mitochondrial derived peptide, MOTS-c, in skeletal muscle of healthy aging men is associated with myofiber composition. Aging 2020, 12, 5244–5258.
    6. Jäger, S.; Handschin, C.; St-Pierre, J.; Spiegelman, B.M. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) action in skeletal muscle via direct phosphorylation of PGC-1α. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2007, 104, 12017–12022.
    7. Schnyder, S.; Handschin, C. Skeletal muscle as an endocrine organ: PGC-1α, myokines and exercise. Bone 2015, 80, 115–125.
    8. Li, S.; Wang, M.; Ma, J.; Pang, X.; Yuan, J.; Pan, Y.; Fu, Y.; Laher, I. MOTS-c and Exercise Restore Cardiac Function by Activating of NRG1-ErbB Signaling in Diabetic Rats. Front Endocrinol. 2022, 13, 812032.
    9. Qin Q, Delrio S, Wan J, Jay Widmer R, Cohen P, Lerman LO, Lerman A.Downregulation of circulating MOTS-c levels in patients with coronary endothelial dysfunction. Int J Cardiol. 2018 Mar 1;254:23-27.
    10. Zhong P, Peng J, Hu Y, Zhang J, Shen C. Mitochondrial derived peptide MOTS-c prevents the development of heart failure under pressure overload conditions in mice. J Cell Mol Med. 2022 Nov;26(21):5369-5378. doi: 10.1111/jcmm.17551. Epub 2022 Sep 25.
    11. BioSpace. (2019, November 05). CohBar completes phase 1a and initiates phase 1b stage of clinical trial for CB4211 under development for NASH and ObesityMilestone for first mitochondrial based therapeutic in humans. BioSpace. Retrieved September 18, 2022, from -initiates-Phase1b-Stage-of-Clinical-Trial-of-CB4211-Under-Development-for-NASH-and-ObesityMilestone-for-First-Mitochondrial-Based-Therapeutic-in-Humans.
    12. Reynolds, J.C.; Lai, R.W.; Woodhead, J.S.; Joly, J.H.; Mitchell, C.J.; Cameron-Smith, D.; Lu, R.; Cohen, P.; Graham, N.A.; Benayoun, B.A.; et al. MOTS-c is an exercise-induced mitochondrial-encoded regulator of age-dependent physical decline and muscle homeostasis. Nat. Commun. 2021, 12, 1–11.


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