Last Updated January 28, 2024

 January 28, 2024

Curious about BPC-157 nasal spray vs. injections?

If so, this guide has researchers covered.

Below, our experts detail all the key info on BPC-157 nasal spray, injections and oral capsules, including…

  • What is BPC-157?
  • Benefits of BPC-157 nasal spray
  • BPC-157 nasal spray vs. injections
  • BPC-157 nasal spray vs. capsules

For researchers interested in BPC-157, this is the definitive review of the optimal routes of administration. We also detail BPC-157 research applications, side effects, and more.

Lastly, we will give our highest recommendation for researchers looking to source the best BPC-157 the web has to offer.

Buy BPC-157 + TB-500 Nasal Spray Blend from our top-rated vendor...

Disclaimer: contains information about products that are intended for laboratory and research use only, unless otherwise explicitly stated. This information, including any referenced scientific or clinical research, is made available for educational purposes only. Likewise, any published information relative to the dosing and administration of reference materials is made available strictly for reference and shall not be construed to encourage the self-administration or any human use of said reference materials. makes every effort to ensure that any information it shares complies with national and international standards for clinical trial information and is committed to the timely disclosure of the design and results of all interventional clinical studies for innovative treatments publicly available or that may be made available. However, research is not considered conclusive. makes no claims that any products referenced can cure, treat or prevent any conditions, including any conditions referenced on its website or in print materials.

What is BPC-157?

BPC-157 (Body Protection Compound-157), otherwise known as bepecin, is a synthetic peptide that is under clinical investigation for numerous therapeutic applications.

A derivative of the naturally occurring gastric protein called Body Protection Compound (BPC), BPC-157 is classed as a pentadecapeptide, composed of 15 amino acids. Endogenous BPC is produced in the gastrointestinal tract and is essential to proper digestive function. It maintains the lining of the GI tract, healing and preventing lesions while combating oxidative stress. This regenerative peptide is shown to promote angiogenesis, cellular repair, tissue growth, and improved inflammatory response [1, 2, 3].

Therapeutic Considerations

BPC-157 is more stable than its parent compound, and studies indicate that it does not require a carrier agent to elicit systemic effects. Like endogenous BPC, it exhibits powerful cytoprotective properties, fortifying, protecting, and healing the lining of the GI tract. Research shows that its angiogenic and anti-inflammatory benefits may extend beyond the digestive system even in small doses.

In stimulating vascular growth and fibroblast proliferation, BPC-157 is linked with faster injury and wound healing in multiple tissue types. These include hepatic and nervous tissues, as well as muscle, bone, and tendon. BPC-157 is further shown to have powerful anti-inflammatory effects throughout the GI tract and systemically, lending it potential in the treatment of inflammatory and metabolic diseases [2, 3, 4, 5, 6].

Clinical Background

BPC-157 was introduced in 1993 and initially studied as a potential treatment for inflammatory bowel disease due to its anti-ulcer effects. Although it entered phase I clinical trials in this regard, BPC-157 is not certified by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for medical use. As such, substantial data on BPC-157 administration in humans is lacking. However, research to date suggests that BPC-157 is non-toxic and well-tolerated when properly handled in qualified settings [17].

Routes of Administration

Like many research peptides, injection of BPC-157 has historically been the favored route of administration due to the compound’s instability and consequent low oral bioavailability. However, a highly stable form of BPC-157 called BPC-157 arginate has recently been developed, exhibiting oral bioavailability of over 90%. Given the peptide’s notable gastroprotective effects, it may be well suited to this novel capsular form [8, 9, 10].

BPC-157 has also been applied topically in several animal studies into its wound-healing capabilities. Although research on intranasal administration of BPC-157 is extremely limited, broad studies on the potential benefits of intranasally administered peptide therapeutics suggest that this may be a beneficial RoA [11, 12].

Nasal formulas from reputable peptide sources have recently become available for researchers to explore this promising means of application, as detailed below.

Overall, BPC-157 currently has four routes of administration available for research:

  • Injectable
  • Nasal spray
  • Oral capsules
  • Topical

Continue reading to learn more about the benefits of intranasal BPC-157 use, as well as how it compares to oral and parenteral routes.

 bpc-157 nasal spray 

BPC-157 Nasal Spray | What Researchers MUST Know

Clinical interest in nasal drug delivery has increased in recent years due to its unique advantages in certain therapeutic contexts. Intranasal administration is valued as a non-invasive means of both systemic and local administration with good bioavailability, rapid onset, and targeted effects on the central nervous system [13, 14].

Nasal delivery may be particularly effective in the treatment of neurological diseases due to the direct nose-to-brain pathway. This includes neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s, as well as mental health conditions like schizophrenia. However, intranasal administration is also considered an efficient route for systemic effects due to the dense vasculature of the nasal mucosa. Researchers note that intranasal delivery may especially increase the bioavailability of peptide therapeutics and present an appealing alternative to injection [14, 15, 16].

BPC-157 and Nasal Delivery

Despite mounting research on nasal peptide administration, studies on nasal delivery of BPC-157 are lacking. Yet, the few trials to date are promising.

In one study, BPC-157 was shown to reduce brain swelling and inflammation with topical application in rats with superior sagittal thrombosis. Another study on intranasal administration of BPC-157 in rats with rhinitis elicited anti-inflammatory effects in the nasal lining [17, 18].

Given the evidenced benefits of BPC-157 on neurological health, including neuroprotection, neurotransmitter modulation, and the maintenance of systemic homeostasis via the brain-gut axis, it may be particularly suited to nasal administration. As such, leading peptide brands have begun to develop BPC-157 nasal spray formulas, such as Limitless Life' BPC-157/TB-500 Spray, for innovative researchers to enjoy [19, 20].

Next, we will explore how intranasal BPC-157 delivery compares to other common routes of administration.

Comparison | BPC-157 Nasal Spray vs. Injections

Is one method better than another when administering BPC-157? The answer may be complicated, especially depending on the context of the research.

Let’s look at the main factors to consider:


Traditionally, injection has been considered the most efficient route of administering peptide drugs due to their instability and rapid degradation with oral, topical, and other delivery methods.

BPC-157 has been shown in animal models to adhere to the metabolic process of standard peptide-based drugs, suggesting that injections are the most bioavailable route of delivery. Indeed, studies on BPC-157 to date have more often featured injection rather than nasal delivery [21, 22].

However, emerging research and novel formulations may alter these dynamics. For example, a more stable and highly orally available form of BPC-157 known as BPC157 arginate has recently been developed.

Further, clinicians have only recently begun to consider the unique advantages of nasal administration, spurring the development of pharmaceuticals that are highly bioavailable via the nasal mucosa. Compared with injection, intranasal delivery is favorably recognized as a less invasive method of bypassing the blood-brain barrier [10, 13, 23].

Therapeutic Context

Research findings suggest that the optimal use of BPC-157 is in many cases dependent on the therapeutic target, as different routes of delivery and dosages elicit varying effects.

For gastroprotective benefits, oral delivery may be the best. Meanwhile, as noted above, targeted neurological effects may best be achieved with nasal sprays. In contexts of vascular disease or global effects, injection may remain the preferred method [2, 20, 24, 25].

Additional considerations include the comfort of the subject.

Nasal sprays are less invasive than injections and therefore more suited to regular use. Consequently, this format may be more marketable and thus likely to receive increased development interest and regulatory approval [13].

In short, researchers are strongly encouraged to become familiar with relevant findings on the best handling and administration protocols for specific uses of BPC-157, as optimal delivery methods are subject to change.

Comparison | BPC-157 Nasal Spray vs. Oral Capsules

While nasal sprays evidence substantial utility for targeted neurological effects, when it comes to gastrointestinal benefits, orally delivered BPC-157 capsules may be the best option.

Breakthrough BPC-157 arginate formulas that are highly stable, bioavailable, and long-acting have great therapeutic potential. Like nasal sprays, capsules are non-invasive and appealing for regular use [10, 24, 26].

Many promising recent developments in BPC-157 research are now in capsules format. These unique capsules are made with highly stable and orally effective BPC-157 and additional therapeutic compounds for enhanced benefits.

Here are a few to consider when researcher the BPC-157 peptide:

The star ingredient of this cutting-edge preparation is BPC-157 arginate, exhibiting significantly greater stability and oral activity than the original form, BPC-157 acetate. It is resistant to gastric acids and maintains the therapeutic action of the standard iteration.

This ultra-healing peptide is partnered with a derivative of another potent regenerative peptide called thymosin beta-4 (TB4), also known as TB-500. Featured in a smaller, fragmentary form for easier GI tract absorption, it imparts further anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating benefits for a synergistic healing effect [10, 27, 28, 29].

This formula is sure to be of interest to researchers interested in enhanced injury recovery, as well as addressing symptoms of inflammatory, cardiovascular, and neurological diseases.

This potent formula combines a trio of anti-inflammatory compounds with orally active BPC-157 arginate for focused healing of the gastrointestinal tract. Each one of the naturally-occurring ingredients is shown to combat GI inflammation through distinct mechanisms, eliciting synergistic benefits. KPV and tributyrin partner to regulate damaging cytokines associated with inflammatory bowel disease, while BPC-157 and PEA calm and fortify the GI lining [8, 30, 31, 32].

Well-suited to research into GI health and reducing gut inflammation, this innovative blend may also have systemic healing effects.

Information on BPC-157 Injections

Although more definitive studies into the administration of BPC-157 in humans are needed, researchers may benefit from known clinical findings to guide safe and proper handling. When it comes to ordering BPC-157 injections, there is slightly more data to pull from. This is fortunate, due to the invasive nature of this delivery method.

Here, we will briefly cover routine considerations for researchers considering BPC-157 application via injection.

Administration and Dosage

Although subcutaneous injections are utilized, intramuscular is observed to be the most efficient. It is advised to begin with a low dose and increase incrementally. A widely observed daily dose is 250mcg, or 2-4mcg per kg. Many studies involve dosage cycles, which vary with the therapeutic target. Researchers are advised to consult all relevant literature for guidelines on the exact courses of therapy.


Most peptides are available as lyophilized powders and must be reconstituted with a sterile solvent to be injected. Experts recommend the use of bacteriostatic water for this purpose. Composed of a natural preservative and sterile water, bacteriostatic water reduces the risk of contamination, extends the shelf life of solutions, and efficiently dissolves peptides while maintaining their purity levels. Additional materials are required for safe reconstitution and injection, available at the link provided.

No matter which route of administration is used, it is imperative to source BPC-157 from a legitimate supplier of quality peptides. 

Click here to learn more about BPC-157 protocol and dosing.

bpc-157 nasal spray

Where to Buy BPC-157 Online? | 2024 Edition

Peptide quality is key for both safety and success in research. As such, we have combed the net for the best suppliers of research-only BPC-157 nasal sprays, capsules, and injectables.

When it comes to BPC-157 nasal spray, researchers should check out this high-quality offering from Limitless Life, a leading research peptide brand and a favorite here at

This vendor verifies peptide purity with third-party Certificates of Analysis (CoAs) and offers rapid international shipping on top-quality items. 

Let's take a look at more of their offerings below:

This is by far the best BPC-157 nasal spray available on the market. By far.

Offering 10mg of BPC-157 and 50mg of TB-500, this potent and powerful nasal spray is designed to actually get results. With enough BPC-157 and TB-500 to actual offer healing in research settings, we can't recommend this research peptide spray enough.

Limitless Life BPC-157/TB-500 nasal spray is also the only formulation we've seen with sufficient quantity of each peptide to offer a legitimate alternative to aliquot BPC-157/TB-500.

Nothing else comes close!

Buy BPC-157 + TB-500 Nasal Spray Blend from our top-rated vendor...

While we mentioned a few BPC-157 oral formulations above, some researchers might be interested in BPC-157 capsules that only include BPC-157 with no other peptides.

In this scenario, research should look no further than this great offering from our preferred peptide suppliers, Limitless Life. They offer a pure BPC-157 capsule peptide.

One bottle offers 60 capsules at 250 mcg per capsule.

And lastly, this company our go-to supplier of lab-tested injectable peptides, including BPC-157. 

Why do we recommend Limitless Life these days? Because this company sticks to the highest standards of quality, with all their peptides and products being third-party verified.

As such, researchers receive only the highest quality peptides from Limitless Life, verified and trusted. Their 99%+ quality is considered of the highest quality. In comparison, 98.5% purity is said to be “pharmaceutical grade” by those in the know.

BPC-157 Benefits and Research Applications

The known benefits of BPC-157 are many, and ongoing studies are sure to add.

Here is a quick rundown of the most notable benefits of BPC-157 in current findings:

GI Function

In its natural element as a gastro peptide, BPC-157 contributes greatly to the structural integrity and function of the entire gastrointestinal tract. It is shown to fortify the gut lining while rapidly healing and protecting against lesions, also reducing inflammation and influencing global health by acting on the gut-brain axis. Human studies show its marked anti-ulcer effects and utility in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease [2, 4, 33].

Improved Healing

Animal studies indicate that BPC-157 stimulates the proliferation of fibroblasts to enhance healing in many tissue types. These include the GI lining, as well as bones, skin, tendons, ligaments, and muscles [3, 33]


BPC-157 has been shown in animal models to increase angiogenesis through upregulating endothelial growth factor. This contributes to injury recovery and has the potential to boost cardiovascular health, increasing circulation and stabilizing blood pressure [33, 34, 35].

Neurological Health

BPC-157 is also evidenced to have neuroprotective effects, reducing nerve damage due to strokes and injuries while regulating neurotransmitters to attenuate symptoms of Parkinson’s disease, schizophrenia, and depression [2, 33, 36].

Treating Drug Toxicity

Similarly, BPC-157 effectively reduces the toxic effects of numerous drugs, including insulin, alcohol, NSAIDs, and neuroleptics. These protective benefits have been observed in the GI tract, liver, cardiovascular system, and brain [20, 36].

Powerful Anti-Inflammatory

Anti-inflammatory benefits have been evidenced with BPC-157 administration in many tissue types, including the lungs, liver, nervous system, and gastrointestinal tract [33, 34].

This is not an exhaustive list of the therapeutic effects observed in BPC-157. Emerging research further points to its anti-aging effects through collagen synthesis, as well as analgesic benefits [37, 38].

Is BPC-157 Safe?

Bearing in mind that there is a lack of data on BPC-157 use in humans, research suggests that it is safe and well-tolerated when properly handled. When adverse reactions have occurred, they have been mild and transient. These include [6, 34, 39]:

  • Irritation at the site of injection
  • Fatigue
  • Nausea
  • Light-headedness
  • Sweating

Adverse effects are often attributable to low-grade peptides. For this reason, peptides must be sourced from legitimate retailers. When handling BPC-157, researchers are encouraged to consult all relevant research and adhere to expert guidelines for safety and efficacy.

BPC-157 Nasal Spray | Verdict

In closing, intranasal administration represents a promising yet under-studied avenue of research into the therapeutic use of BPC-157.

However, a review of recent studies indicates that this is soon to change as more clinicians become aware of the unique advantages of nasal delivery of peptides and other therapeutics. These include targeted action on the central nervous system, excellent bioavailability, and the rapid onset of systemic effects. BPC-157 may be particularly suited to this route of administration due to its known neuroprotective benefits.

With great offerings such as the BPC-157 + TB-500 nasal spray from Limitless Life, researchers can seize the opportunity to conduct cutting-edge investigations into the great therapeutic potential of nasal BPC-157 administration.


  1. Gwyer D, Wragg NM, Wilson SL. Gastric pentadecapeptide body protection compound BPC 157 and its role in accelerating musculoskeletal soft tissue healing. Cell Tissue Res. 2019 Aug;377(2):153-159. doi: 10.1007/s00441-019-03016-8. Epub 2019 Mar 27. PMID: 30915550.
  2. Vukojevic J, Milavić M, Perović D, Ilić S, Čilić AZ, Đuran N, Štrbe S, Zoričić Z, Filipčić I, Brečić P, Seiverth S, Sikirić P. Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 and the central nervous system. Neural Regen Res. 2022 Mar;17(3):482-487. doi: 10.4103/1673-5374.320969. PMID: 34380875; PMCID: PMC8504390.
  3. Chang CH, Tsai WC, Hsu YH, Pang JH. Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 enhances the growth hormone receptor expression in tendon fibroblasts. Molecules. 2014 Nov 19;19(11):19066-77. doi: 10.3390/molecules191119066. PMID: 25415472; PMCID: PMC6271067.
  4. Sikiric P, Drmic D, Sever M, Klicek R, Blagaic AB, Tvrdeic A, Kralj T, Kovac KK, Vukojevic J, Siroglavic M, Gojkovic S, Krezic I, Pavlov KH, Rasic D, Mirkovic I, Kokot A, Skrtic A, Seiwerth S. Fistulas Healing. Stable Gastric Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 Therapy. Curr Pharm Des. 2020;26(25):2991-3000. doi: 10.2174/1381612826666200424180139. PMID: 32329684.
  5. Krivic, A., Anic, T., Seiwerth, S., Huljev, D. and Sikiric, P. (2006), Achilles Detachment in Rat and Stable Gastric Pentadecapeptide BPC 157: Promoted Tendon-to-Bone Healing and Opposed Corticosteroid Aggravation. J. Orthop. Res., 24: 982-989.
  6. Park JM, Lee HJ, Sikiric P, Hahm KB. BPC 157 Rescued NSAID-cytotoxicity Via Stabilizing Intestinal Permeability and Enhancing Cytoprotection. Curr Pharm Des. 2020;26(25):2971-2981. doi: 10.2174/1381612826666200523180301. PMID: 32445447.
  7. BPC 157 – Mesh – NCBI [Internet]. National Center for Biotechnology Information. U.S. National Library of Medicine; [cited 2022Dec17]. Available from:
  8. He L, Feng D, Guo H, Zhou Y, Li Z, Zhang K, Zhang W, Wang S, Wang Z, Hao Q, Zhang C, Gao Y, Gu J, Zhang Y, Li W, Li M. Pharmacokinetics, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of body-protective compound 157, a potential drug for treating various wounds, in rats and dogs. Front Pharmacol. 2022 Dec 14;13:1026182. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2022.1026182. PMID: 36588717; PMCID: PMC9794587.
  9. Shaji, J., & Patole, V. (2008). Protein and Peptide Drug Delivery: Oral Approaches. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 70(3), 269-277.
  10. US9850282B2 – stable pentadecapeptide salts, a process for preparation thereof, a use thereof in the manufacture of pharmaceutical preparations and a use thereof in therapy [Internet]. Google Patents. Google; [cited 2023Jan]. Available from:
  11. Mikus D, Sikiric P, Seiwerth S, Petricevic A, Aralica G, et al. Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 cream improves burn-wound healing and attenuates burn-gastric lesions in mice. Burns. 2001;27(8):817-827.
  12. Staresinic M, Sebecic B, Patrlj L, Jadrijevic S, Suknaic S, et al. Gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 accelerates healing of transected rat Achilles tendon and in vitro stimulates tendocytes growth. J Orthop Res. 2003;2196):976-983.
  13. Keller, LA., Merkel, O. & Popp, A. Intranasal drug delivery: opportunities and toxicologic challenges during drug development. Drug Deliv. and Transl. Res. 12, 735–757 (2022).
  14. Bose M, Farias Quipildor G, Ehrlich ME, Salton SR. Intranasal Peptide Therapeutics: A Promising Avenue for Overcoming the Challenges of Traditional CNS Drug Development. Cells. 2022; 11(22):3629.
  15. Pires, A., Fortuna, A., Alves, G., & Falcão, A. (2009). Intranasal Drug Delivery: How, Why and What for?. Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences, 12(3), 288–311.
  16. Amrish Kumar, Aditya Nath Pandey & Sunil Kumar Jain (2016) Nasal-nanotechnology: revolution for efficient therapeutics delivery, Drug Delivery, 23:3, 671-683, DOI: 10.3109/10717544.2014.920431
  17. Gojkovic, S., Krezic, I., Vranes, H., Zizek, H., Drmic, D., Pavlov, K. H., Petrovic, A., Vuletic, L. B., Milavic, M., Sikiric, S., Stilinovic, I., Samara, M., Knezevic, M., Barisic, I., Sjekavica, I., Lovric, E., Skrtic, A., Seiwerth, S., & Sikiric, P. (2021). BPC 157 Therapy and the Permanent Occlusion of the Superior Sagittal Sinus in Rat: Vascular Recruitment. Biomedicines, 9(7).
  18. Kalogjera L, Ries M, Baudoin T, Ferencic Z, Trotic R, Pegan B. Dose-dependent protective effect of BPC 157 on capsaicin-induced rhinitis in rats. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 1997;254 Suppl 1:S9-11. doi: 10.1007/BF02439711. PMID: 9065615.
  19. Sikiric P, Separovic J, Buljat G, Anic T, Stancic-Rokotov D, Mikus D, Marovic A, Prkacin I, Duplancic B, Zoricic I, Aralica G, Lovric-Bencic M, Ziger T, Perovic D, Rotkvic I, Mise S, Hanzevacki M, Hahn V, Seiwerth S, Turkovic B, Grabarevic Z, Petek M, Rucman R. The antidepressant effect of an antiulcer pentadecapeptide BPC 157 in Porsolt's test and chronic unpredictable stress in rats. A comparison with antidepressants. J Physiol Paris. 2000 Mar-Apr;94(2):99-104. doi: 10.1016/s0928-4257(00)00148-0. PMID: 10791689.
  20. Sikiric, P., Seiwerth, S., Rucman, R., Kolenc, D., Vuletic, L. B., Drmic, D., Grgic, T., Strbe, S., Zukanovic, G., Crvenkovic, D., Madzarac, G., Rukavina, I., Sucic, M., Baric, M., Starcevic, N., Krstonijevic, Z., Bencic, M. L., Filipcic, I., Rokotov, D. S., . . . Vlainic, J. (2016). Brain-gut Axis and Pentadecapeptide BPC 157: Theoretical and Practical Implications. Current Neuropharmacology, 14(8), 857-865.
  21. He L, Feng D, Guo H, Zhou Y, Li Z, Zhang K, Zhang W, Wang S, Wang Z, Hao Q, Zhang C, Gao Y, Gu J, Zhang Y, Li W, Li M. Pharmacokinetics, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of body-protective compound 157, a potential drug for treating various wounds, in rats and dogs. Front Pharmacol. 2022 Dec 14;13:1026182. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2022.1026182. PMID: 36588717; PMCID: PMC9794587.
  22. Shaji, J., & Patole, V. (2008). Protein and Peptide Drug Delivery: Oral Approaches. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 70(3), 269-277.
  23. Meredith ME, Salameh TS, Banks WA. Intranasal Delivery of Proteins and Peptides in the Treatment of Neurodegenerative Diseases. AAPS J. 2015 Jul;17(4):780-7. doi: 10.1208/s12248-015-9719-7. Epub 2015 Mar 24. PMID: 25801717; PMCID: PMC4476983.
  24. Jagic, V., Turkovic, B., Rotkvic, I. et al. Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 Interactions with Adrenergic and Dopaminergic Systems in Mucosal Protection in Stress. Dig Dis Sci 42, 661–671 (1997).
  25. Jandric, I., Vrcic, H., Balen, M. J., Kolenc, D., Brcic, L., Radic, B., Drmic, D., Seiwerth, S., & Sikiric, P. (2013). Salutary effect of gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 in two different stress urinary incontinence models in female rats. Medical Science Monitor Basic Research, 19, 93-102.
  26. Duzel A, Vlainic J, Antunovic M, Malekinusic D, Vrdoljak B, Samara M, Gojkovic S, Krezic I, Vidovic T, Bilic Z, Knezevic M, Sever M, Lojo N, Kokot A, Kolovrat M, Drmic D, Vukojevic J, Kralj T, Kasnik K, Siroglavic M, Seiwerth S, Sikiric P. Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 in the treatment of colitis and ischemia and reperfusion in rats: New insights. World J Gastroenterol. 2017 Dec 28;23(48):8465-8488. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v23.i48.8465. PMID: 29358856; PMCID: PMC5752708.
  27. Xing Y, Ye Y, Zuo H, Li Y. Progress on the function and application of thymosin β4 [Internet]. Frontiers. Frontiers; 2021 [cited 2022Dec21]. Available from:
  28. Kumar N, Yin C. The anti-inflammatory peptide Ac-SDKP: Synthesis, role in ACE inhibition, and its therapeutic potential in hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Pharmacol Res. 2018 Aug;134:268-279. doi: 10.1016/j.phrs.2018.07.006. Epub 2018 Jul 7. PMID: 29990624.
  29. Wang W, Jia W, Zhang C. The Role of Tβ4-POP-Ac-SDKP Axis in Organ Fibrosis. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2022; 23(21):13282.
  30. Kannengiesser K, Maaser C, Heidemann J, Luegering A, Ross M, Brzoska T, Bohm M, Luger TA, Domschke W, Kucharzik T. Melanocortin-derived tripeptide KPV has anti-inflammatory potential in murine models of inflammatory bowel disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2008 Mar;14(3):324-31. doi: 10.1002/ibd.20334. PMID: 18092346.
  31. Vinolo MA, Rodrigues HG, Festuccia WT, Crisma AR, Alves VS, Martins AR, Amaral CL, Fiamoncini J, Hirabara SM, Sato FT, Fock RA, Malheiros G, dos Santos MF, Curi R. Tributyrin attenuates obesity-associated inflammation and insulin resistance in high-fat-fed mice. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Jul 15;303(2):E272-82. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.00053.2012. Epub 2012 May 22. PMID: 22621868.
  32. Calignano A, La Rana G, Piomelli D. Antinociceptive activity of the endogenous fatty acid amide, palmitylethanolamide. Eur J Pharmacol. 2001 May 11;419(2-3):191-8. doi: 10.1016/s0014-2999(01)00988-8. PMID: 11426841.
  33. Biomedicines [Internet]. Biomedicines | Special Issue : Frontiers in Pentadecapeptide BPC 157. [cited 2022Dec17]. Available from:
  34. Deek SA. BPC 157 as Potential Treatment for COVID-19. Med Hypotheses. 2021 Nov 9;158:110736. doi: 10.1016/j.mehy.2021.110736. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34798584; PMCID: PMC8575535.
  35. Knezevic M, Gojkovic S, Krezic I, Zizek H, Malekinusic D, Vrdoljak B, Vranes H, Knezevic T, Barisic I, Horvat Pavlov K, Drmic D, Staroveski M, Djuzel A, Rajkovic Z, Kolak T, Kocman I, Lovric E, Milavic M, Sikiric S, Tvrdeic A, Patrlj L, Strbe S, Kokot A, Boban Blagaic A, Skrtic A, Seiwerth S, Sikiric P. Occlusion of the Superior Mesenteric Artery in Rats Reversed by Collateral Pathways Activation: Gastric Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 Therapy Counteracts Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome; Intracranial, Portal, and Caval Hypertension; and Aortal Hypotension. Biomedicines. 2021 May 26;9(6):609. doi: 10.3390/biomedicines9060609. PMID: 34073625; PMCID: PMC8229949.
  36. Sikiric P, Seiwerth S, Rucman R, Turkovic B, Rokotov DS, Brcic L, Sever M, Klicek R, Radic B, Drmic D, Ilic S, Kolenc D, Aralica G, Safic H, Suran J, Rak D, Dzidic S, Vrcic H, Sebecic B. Toxicity by NSAIDs. Counteraction by stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157. Curr Pharm Des. 2013;19(1):76-83. doi: 10.2174/13816128130111. PMID: 22950504.
  37. Huang, T., Zhang, K., Sun, L., Xue, X., Zhang, C., Shu, Z., Mu, N., Gu, J., Zhang, W., Wang, Y., Zhang, Y., & Zhang, W. (2015). Body protective compound-157 enhances alkali-burn wound healing in vivo and promotes proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis in vitro. Drug Design, Development and Therapy, 9, 2485-2499.
  38. SikiriĆ, P., Gyires, K., Seiwerth, S. et al. The effect of pentadecapeptide BPC 157 on inflammatory, non-inflammatory, direct and indirect pain and capsaicin neurotoxicity. Inflammopharmacology 2, 121–127 (1993).
  39. Strinic D, Belosic Halle Z, Luetic K, Nedic A, Petrovic I, Sucic M, Zivanovic Posilovic G, Balenovic D, Strbe S, Udovicic M, Drmic D, Stupnisek M, Lovric Bencic M, Seiwerth S, Sikiric P. BPC 157 counteracts QTc prolongation induced by haloperidol, fluphenazine, clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, sulpiride, and metoclopramide in rats. Life Sci. 2017 Oct 1;186:66-79. doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2017.08.006. Epub 2017 Aug 7. PMID: 28797793.

Scientifically Fact Checked by:

David Warmflash, M.D.

Table of Contents
    Add a header to begin generating the table of contents