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Thymosin alpha-1 is a synthetic peptide that has been extensively studied for its immunomodulatory properties and has shown promising results in boosting immune function, stimulating T-cell activity, and improving the body's ability to fight infections and diseases. It has also been investigated for its potential to treat various medical conditions, including viral infections and autoimmune disorders.

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    What is Thymosin Alpha-1?

    Thymosin alpha-1 (Ta1) is a synthetic peptide known for its potent immunomodulatory properties. Derived from the thymic hormone thymosin fraction 5, Ta1 has garnered attention for its therapeutic potential in various immune-related conditions [1].

    Comprising 28 amino acids, thymosin alpha-1 was first isolated from tissues of the thymus gland, a critical organ involved in immune cell maturation, T-cell development, and adaptive immunity. Ta1 acts as an immunoregulatory agent and is central to healthy immune function [1].

    The development and regulatory history of thymosin alpha-1 spans several decades. Initially, it showed potential for immunodeficiency disorders and as a vaccine adjuvant. In the 1990s, clinical trials and research expanded to investigate the peptide’s efficacy in treating viral infections and cancer [2].

    Over the years, thymosin alpha-1 has undergone rigorous evaluation and regulatory scrutiny. It has received regulatory approval in several countries to treat viral infections such as chronic hepatitis B and C and some types of cancer. The regulatory landscape surrounding Ta1 continues to evolve, and ongoing research aims to further elucidate its safety and efficacy in various medical contexts [3].

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    Thymosin Alpha-1 Benefits and Uses

    Thymosin alpha-1 has demonstrated broad potential in clinical practice due to its immunomodulatory properties, most notably in the following areas.

    Hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV): Thymosin alpha-1 may aid in the management of hepatitis C virus. Although clinical trials combining Ta1 with standard care have yielded inconclusive results, its ability to enhance T-cell function and regulate cytokine production has generated interest in improving treatment outcomes for intractable conditions [4].

    In the treatment of hepatitis B virus infection, combining Ta1 with lamivudine has shown significant improvements compared to lamivudine treatment alone. These include enhanced liver function, reduced viral replication, and transition to an inactive HBV carrier state [5].

    Cancer therapy: By stimulating both innate and adaptive immune responses, Ta1 can enhance the anti-tumor immune response when combined with chemotherapy. Additionally, it may boost the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors and reduce immune-related adverse events [6].

    COVID-19: The immunomodulatory effects of Ta1 have been evaluated in patients with COVID-19. Results show a faster increase in CD4+ T-cell count among patients receiving Ta1, suggesting its potential in managing hospitalized COVID-19 patients with hypoxemia and lymphocytopenia [7, 8].

    Vaccine adjuvant: Thymosin alpha-1 has been explored as an adjuvant to enhance vaccine efficacy, particularly for the influenza vaccine. Studies have shown that it can improve immunogenicity, making it beneficial for elderly individuals and those with compromised immune systems [9].

    Bacterial & fungal infections: Ta1 has shown potential in the treatment of Pseudomonas infections by enhancing the antibacterial immune response in bone marrow transplant patients [10]. It is also shown to boost antifungal immune response for a lowered risk of fungal infection [11].

    Other uses: Thymosin alpha-1 has been further investigated for its anti-aging and neuroprotective benefits, as well as its potential to treat chronic fatigue syndrome and psoriatic arthritis. More research is needed to establish its efficacy in these areas.

    Overall, thymosin alpha-1's immunomodulatory properties have positioned it as a versatile peptide with potential applications in various medical conditions, highlighting its ongoing significance in clinical research and practice.

    Thymosin Alpha-1 Side Effects and Safety

    Thymosin alpha-1 is generally well-tolerated and considered safe when administered at appropriate doses. However, mild and transient side effects have been reported. The most common are injection site irritation, such as pain, redness, or swelling.

    A comprehensive randomized study conducted by Miao et al. (2010) assessed the incidence of treatment-related adverse events (AEs) and serious AEs (SAEs) in thymosin alpha-1 peptide therapy, revealing the following potential side effects [12]:

    • Constipation
    • Diarrhea
    • Nausea
    • Vomiting
    • Chest pain
    • Asthenia
    • Chills
    • Headache

    Although the severity and frequency of these events were not reported, this study broadly supported the tolerability of Ta1 in diverse populations.

    In summary, while thymosin alpha-1 is generally considered safe and well-tolerated, it is associated with some minor side effects, primarily local reactions at the injection site. The incidence of treatment-related AEs and SAEs appears to be insignificant, indicating a favorable safety profile for Ta1.

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    Thymosin Alpha-1 Dosing and Administration

    Here, we will briefly review the current findings on thymosin alpha-1 dosage [13]:

    • Thymosin alpha-1 is typically administered via subcutaneous injection twice a week.
    • The standard single dosage of thymosin alpha-1 is 0.8mg to 6.4mg, depending on the specific medical condition and applicable recommendations.
    • Extant studies feature some posologic variation, ranging from 1.6mg to 16mg daily for up to seven consecutive days.
    • Thymosin alpha-1 demonstrates good tolerability and safety in clinical trials on diverse populations.

    Individual responses to Ta1 may vary, and it is important to follow a prudent dosing protocol.

    Sample Thymosin Alpha-1 Dosing Protocol

    Researchers may refer to this sample thymosin alpha-1 dosing protocol for cellular repair.

    • Thymosin Alpha-1 Dose: 500mcg once daily via subcutaneous injection.
    • Course Duration: 20 days
    • Notes: A 10mg vial of thymosin alpha-1 from our recommended source provides a full 20-day supply.

    Injections must be safely performed using aseptic handling techniques while monitoring for adverse reactions. Discontinue use if severe side effects occur.

    Follow the manufacturer's instructions for proper storage of thymosin alpha-1 vials to maintain peptide stability. Be sure to purchase all research peptides from a credible retailer to ensure safety, quality, and effectiveness.

    How Much Does Thymosin Alpha-1 Cost?

    Here is a breakdown of the cost of thymosin alpha-1 available at Peptide Sciences:

    Thymosin Alpha-1 3mg

    • Cost: $45 per vial
    • Offer: Buy 5 for $42.50 each and save 6% or buy 10 for $40.00 each and save 12%

    Thymosin Alpha-1 10mg vial

    • Cost: $130.00 per vial
    • Offer: Buy 5 for $125.00 each and save 4% or buy 10 for $120.00 each and save 8%

    Please note that free shipping is available for domestic orders over $200.

    In addition to the thymosin alpha-1 vials, you can also purchase bacteriostatic water kits from our recommended supplier

    The cost for a pack of 10 vials, each containing 30mL of solution, is $83.00.

    Sample Dosing Protocol Cost

    To calculate the cost breakdown for a 20-day therapy at 500mcg daily (10mg total), we’ll need to consider the costs of thymosin alpha-1 vials and bacteriostatic water:

    • Number of 10mg thymosin alpha-1 vials required for the 20-day therapy = 1 vial ($130.00)
    • Number of 30mL bacteriostatic water vials required for 20-day therapy (1ml per 500mcg dose) = 1 vial ($83 as part of concierge kit)

    To find the total cost, add one thymosin alpha-1 10mg vial ($130) plus one bacteriostatic water kit ($83.00). The total cost for a 20-day therapy at 500mcg daily (10mg total) is $213 when buying from our accredited suppliers.

    Where To Buy Thymosin Alpha-1 Online | 2023 Edition

    Given the exciting clinical potential of thymosin alpha-1, it is an asset to research on immunomodulation. To add this coveted peptide to your studies, it is essential to buy from a reputable supplier.

    Fortunately, the specialists at have surveyed the online market to provide you with our top recommendation for sourcing premium thymosin alpha-1.

    Look no further than Peptide Sciences.

    Why do so many leading scientists endorse this vendor?

    • Third-Party Quality Assurance: This vendor tests each peptide batch via an independent lab and displays the Certificate of Analysis for each product online. The vendor sources all products from WHO/GMP and ISO 9001:2008-approved manufacturers.
    • Fast, Dependable Delivery: Peptide Sciences ships orders to U.S. destinations within just 2-3 business days and shipping is free for orders over $200. Our test purchase of thymosin alpha-1 arrived quickly without incident.
    • Helpful Customer Service: All of our inquiries received helpful responses from knowledgeable staff within 48 hours.
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    Thymosin Alpha-1 | Frequently Asked Questions

    Below our team breaks down several frequently asked questions regarding the use of thymosin alpha-1 in research settings.

    How is thymosin alpha-1 used?

    Thymosin alpha-1 is typically administered via subcutaneous injection. The recommended dosage and frequency of administration may vary depending on the specific condition being researched.

    Is thymosin alpha-1 readily available?

    Thymosin alpha-1 is available for purchase from various reputable sources, including online suppliers (see our recommendation above). It is important to obtain the peptide strictly from a trusted and reliable source to ensure product quality and authenticity.

    What are the common side effects of thymosin alpha-1?

    The reported side effects of thymosin alpha-1 are generally mild and transient. Commonly reported side effects include injection site reactions such as pain, redness, or swelling.

    Can thymosin alpha-1 be used for weight reduction?

    Thymosin alpha-1 is not specifically indicated for weight reduction purposes. It is primarily used in the management of certain medical conditions such as liver disease and autoimmune diseases.

    Is thymosin alpha-1 beneficial for bodybuilding or muscle gain?

    Thymosin alpha-1 is not typically used for bodybuilding or muscle gain purposes. Its primary therapeutic applications are focused on immune system modulation and supporting immune function in specific medical conditions.

    Bacteriostatic Water For Injection

    When handling thymosin alpha-1 in your research, you will need a certain set of tools to perform safe injections. This includes bacteriostatic water, sterile vials, and insulin syringes.

    Unfortunately, it can be challenging to track down all these items online and from a single trusted retailer. At, we appreciate this obstacle and are happy to recommend the best web vendor of ancillary lab supplies for peptide research:

    This site offers all you need for a fully-equipped lab, saving you the hassle of shopping far and wide from different retailers. The outstanding catalog features two industry-standard supply kits available for door-to-door delivery.

    The starter kit has:

    • Bacteriostatic Water (30mL) - 3x
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    Kick it up a notch with this premium kit:

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    Thymosin Alpha-1 For Sale | Overall

    In conclusion, thymosin alpha-1 is a peptide therapeutic that has shown promise in various medical conditions, including liver disease, viral infections, and autoimmune diseases. It is generally considered safe and well-tolerated when used in appropriate doses.

    It is essential that researchers adhere to recommended practices during the reconstitution and administration of thymosin alpha-1 to ensure accurate dosage and subject safety.

    Our top pick, Peptide Sciences, offers thymosin alpha-1 for sale alongside a full catalog of authentic and high-quality products. This retailer's user-friendly website and emphasis on customer satisfaction make them a preferred choice for purchasing thymosin alpha-1.


    1. King R, Tuthill C.. Immune Modulation with Thymosin Alpha 1 Treatment. Vitam Horm 2016;102:151-78.
    2. Camerini R, Garaci E Historical review of thymosin α 1 in infectious diseases. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2015;15 Suppl 1:S117-27
    3. Michele Maio , Andrzej Mackiewicz , Alessandro Testori , Uwe Trefzer , Virginia Ferraresi, Jacek Jassem.Large Randomized Study of Thymosin α 1, Interferon Alfa, or Both in Combination With Dacarbazine in Patients With Metastatic Melanoma. J Clin Oncol. 2010 Apr 1;28(10):1780-7.
    4. Sherman KE. Thymosin alpha 1 for treatment of hepatitis C virus: promise and proof Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2010 Apr;1194:136-40.
    5. Zhang YY, Chen EQ, Yang J, Duan YR, Tang H. Treatment with lamivudine versus lamivudine and thymosin alpha-1 for e antigen-positive chronic hepatitis B patients: a meta-analysis. Virol J. 2009 May 25;6:63.
    6. Wei Y, Zhang Y, Li P, Yan C, Wang L.Thymosin α-1 in cancer therapy: Immunoregulation and potential applications. Int Immunopharmacol. 2023 Apr;117:109744.
    7. Shehadeh F, Benitez G, Mylona EK, Tran QL, Tsikala-Vafea M, Atalla E, Kaczynski M, Mylonakis E. A Pilot Trial of Thymalfasin (Thymosin-α-1) to Treat Hospitalized Patients With Hypoxemia and Lymphocytopenia Due to Coronavirus Disease 2019 Infection. J Infect Dis. 2023 Jan 11;227(2):226-235
    8. Matteucci C, Minutolo A, Pollicita M, Balestrieri E, Grelli S, D'Ettorre G, Vullo V, Bucci I, Luchini A, Aquaro S, Sinibaldi-Vallebona P, Macchi B, Perno CF, Mastino A, Garaci E. Thymosin α 1 potentiates the release by CD8(+) cells of soluble factors able to inhibit HIV-1 and human T lymphotropic virus 1 infection in vitro.
    9. Panatto D, Amicizia D, Lai PL, Camerini R, De Rosa A, Gasparini R. Utility of thymosin alpha-1 (Zadaxin) as a co-adjuvant in influenza vaccines: a review. J Prev Med Hyg. 2011;52:111-115.
    10. Asimina Dominari, Donald Hathaway III, Krunal Pandav, Wanessa Matos, et al. Thymosin alpha 1: A comprehensive review of the literature. World J Virol. 2020 Dec 15; 9(5): 67–78.
    11. Antachopoulos C, Katragkou A, Roilides E. Immunotherapy against invasive mold infections. Immunotherapy. 2012;4:107-120.
    12. Maio M, Mackiewicz A, Testori A, Trefzer U, Ferraresi V, Jassem J, Garbe C, Lesimple T, Guillot B, Gascon P, Gilde K, Camerini R, Cognetti F; Thymosin Melanoma Investigation Group. Large randomized study of thymosin alpha 1, interferon alfa, or both in combination with dacarbazine in patients with metastatic melanoma. J Clin Oncol. 2010 Apr 1;28(10):1780-7.
    13. Ancell CD, Phipps J, Young L. Thymosin alpha-1. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2001;58:879–85; quiz 886.


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