Titus Thorne

Last Updated November 17, 2022

Titus Thorne

 November 17, 2022

Melanotan is a synthetic peptide that is widely studied for its possible therapeutic use in various contexts. The two types of melanotan are identified as melanotan 1 (MT-I) and melanotan 2 (MT-II), with key differences in their structures and effects. Both are commonly used as sunless tanning agents, in addition to other therapeutic applications.

Here, we will explore the similarities and differences between MT-I and MT-II, including their potential benefits, side effects, and proper use. Plus, we will name the best online source for purchasing quality research peptides.

Read on to learn how to safely and effectively handle these breakthrough peptides in your research.

Buy Melanotan 1 from our #1 recommended vendor...

Disclaimer: Peptides.org contains information about products that are intended for laboratory and research use only, unless otherwise explicitly stated. This information, including any referenced scientific or clinical research, is made available for educational purposes only. Peptides.org makes every effort to ensure that any information it shares complies with national and international standards for clinical trial information and is committed to the timely disclosure of the design and results of all interventional clinical studies for innovative treatments publicly available or that may be made available. However, research is not considered conclusive. Peptides.org makes no claims that any products referenced can cure, treat or prevent any conditions, including any conditions referenced on its website or in print materials.


What is Melanotan 1?

Melanotan 1 (MT-I) is a synthetic analog of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), an organic neuropeptide that plays an important role in the body’s melanocortin system. As a melanocortin agonist, α-MSH acts upon the melanocortin receptors that regulate various physiological processes, including melanin synthesis, sexual stimulation, metabolism, and immune response [1].

Basic Structure

The structure of melanotan 1 is very similar to the endogenous α-MSH neuropeptide, a linear chain of 13 amino acids. However, the fourth and seventh amino acids (methionine and L- phenylalanine, respectively) of the organic hormone are replaced with norleucine and D-phenylalanine in the synthetic analog. This affords the synthetic molecule a longer half-life and stronger stimulus of the melanocortin receptor 1 (MC1R) that regulates melanogenesis [1, 2].

Primary Functions

In its capacity as an MC1R agonist, MT-I promotes melanin synthesis to give the skin a darkened, tanned appearance. While it was initially developed and studied as a sunless tanning and photoprotective agent, clinical research has indicated its potential in other therapeutic contexts, such as enhancing inflammatory and immune responses. It is also evidenced as a possible treatment for acute photodermatoses, including erythropoietic protoporphyria and polymorphic light eruption [1, 3, 4].


Melanotan 1 vs Melanotan 2


What is Melanotan 2?

Like MT-I, melanotan 2 (MT-II) is a synthetic peptide analog of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH). As a melanocortin agonist, it too acts on the body’s melanocortin receptors, involved in sexual function, melanin synthesis, and immunological response, among other biological processes [1, 5].

Basic Structure

Unlike the long and linear structures of MT-I and α-MSH, melanotan 2 has a short, ringed form. It is more potent than α-MSH, exhibiting a stronger effect on the various melanocortin receptors, namely MC1R and MC4R. This affords it additional potential benefits, as well as a greater range of possible side effects [1].

Primary Functions

Melanotan 2 acts primarily on melanocortin receptors 1 and 4 (MC1R and MC4R), which respectively regulate melanogenesis and sexual behavior. It also exhibits some interaction at MC3R, linked with metabolic processes. Like MT-I, it was first developed as a tanning agent. Ongoing analysis has suggested additional clinical applications, such as combating erectile dysfunction in men, addiction, and obesity [1, 5].

A related yet highly modified α-MSH derivative called PT-141 is similarly used in clinical settings, and is approved as a treatment of low libido in premenopausal women [4, 6].

Read on to learn more about the potential benefits of both MT-I and MT-II, as well as how to properly handle these cutting-edge peptides. Plus, you will discover where to source the highest-grade research products online!


Melanotan 1 Benefits

Clinical research has uncovered numerous possible benefits of properly administered melanotan 1. These are the primary potential benefits:

Tanning agent

The primary application of MT-I is to increase the rate of tanning in response to UV-B light, reducing sunburned cells with a photoprotective effect. It is a powerful agonist of the melanocortin 1 receptor, which regulates melanin synthesis [1, 2, 4].

Neuroprotection and cognitive enhancement

In clinical trials, MT-I has been shown to improve the mental health of patients undergoing photodynamic therapy for cancer treatment. Animal studies indicate that MT-I also protects against cognitive decline due to Alzheimer’s disease and stroke [7, 8].

Treatment of acute dermatoses

The photoprotective effects of MT-I are beneficial for those with photosensitivity disorders. It was approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration in 2019 as a treatment for erythropoietic protoporphyria. It is under analysis for its potential to treat solar dermatitis, xeroderma pigmentosum, and polymorphic light eruption [1, 9, 10].

Melanotan 1 has also shown promise in clinical trials as an acne treatment and anti-inflammatory agent. Additional potential benefits include enhanced cardiovascular health, sexual function, and body composition [4, 11, 12, 13, 14].


Melanotan 2 Benefits

Research indicates these primary benefits of melanotan 2:

Melanogenesis for a tanning effect

Like MT-I, MT-II also has melanotropic effects, stimulating melanin synthesis through the MC1R receptor to visibly darken skin tone. Higher melanin levels also have photoprotective benefits, possibly reducing the risk of skin cancer and photodamage due to UV exposure [4, 15].

Sexual health

Melanotan 2 stimulates the melanocortin receptors 3 and 4 to regulate sexual response in both females and males. Its potency as a treatment of erectile dysfunction in male subjects is especially notable [5, 16, 17].

Treating behavioral disorders and addiction

Animal studies indicate that MT-II upregulates oxytocin through MC4R stimulation to reduce autistic behaviors such as lack of social attunement and difficulty with communication. It may also combat addictive and impulsive behaviors through the hypothalamic effects of MC4R stimulation [18, 19].

Appetite suppressant

In animal studies, MC4R activation has also been shown to reduce appetite and modify macronutrient preferences to reduce sugar and fat consumption. In this capacity, MT-II is being studied as a potential treatment for obesity [20].

Metabolic health

By targeting MC3R and MC4R, melanotan 2 has been shown to regulate blood sugar, with some researchers viewing it as a potential treatment of metabolic disease [21].

Fat loss

Clinical research ties MT-II to reduced adiposity in animal subjects, as the melanocortin system regulates fat storage and energy expenditure, contributing to its ongoing study as an obesity treatment [22].

Like MT-I, melanonan 2 is currently under review for emerging benefits in addition to these.


Melanotan 1 vs Melanotan 2


Melanotan 1 Side Effects

Now that we have explored the many benefits of melanotan, let’s take a look at the possible side effects. Melanotan 1 has a favorable safety profile, displaying few significant side effects in clinical trials.

Studies on the long-term effects of melanotan are lacking due to the relatively recent development of therapeutic formulations. Thus, research on the lasting effects of MT-I is ongoing, pending further data.

The most commonly noted transient adverse effects in clinical trials include the following [2]:

  • Nausea
  • Facial flushing
  • Fatigue

Rare possible side effects include [23, 24, 25]:

  • Irritation at the site of administration
  • Melanocytic nevus
  • Cough
  • Dizziness
  • Priapism

Some of the above side effects pertain only to subcutaneous MT-I implants as reviewed in clinical trials. Specialists caution against the use of MT-I and MT-II in patients with body dysmorphia, particularly relating to skin tone. In the majority of cases, notable side effects resolve with the suspension of treatment.

The incidence of side effects often corresponds with low-quality peptides sourced from questionable suppliers, as well as failure to comply with dosage guidelines. Impure MT-I products may contain contaminants that are linked to systemic toxicity. Researchers are therefore advised to purchase peptides from trusted sources and adhere to standard dosage guidelines [4].


Melanotan 2 Side Effects

Several possible side effects of melanotan 2 have also been evidenced in clinical trials. As with MT-I, there is currently no available research on the long-term effects of MT-II. Here, we will explore the main clinical findings on the immediate potential side effects of melanotan 2.

A study on three male subjects in good health who received subcutaneous melanotan 2 injections daily in doses of 0.01mg/kg displayed these side effects during a two-week trial [15]:

  • Yawning
  • Stretching
  • Nausea
  • Spontaneous erections
  • Drowsiness
  • Fatigue

In clinical trials, the administration of MT-II has been linked with the development of naevi (moles) or the darkening of extant ones. Additional minor side effects have been observed, such as [4]:

  • Facial flushing
  • Patchy skin pigmentation
  • Streaks of pigmentation in the nails
  • Changes in sense of taste
  • Headache

Acute side effects are rare and can include [4]:

  • Priapism
  • Hematoma
  • Heart palpitations
  • Hyperventilation
  • Abdominal pain
  • Seizures
  • Dizziness
  • Melanoma

As noted with MT-I, the use of MT-II is not recommended in individuals presenting symptoms of body dysmorphia. In most cases, unwanted side effects disappear with cessation of use and are aggravated by variables such as tanning bed use, drug interactions, and comorbidities.

Researchers are advised to source melanotan 2 from strictly reputable suppliers.


Melanotan 1 Dosage Guide

Now, let’s explore the recommended dosage of melanotan 1. Outside of its FDA-approved use as an EPP treatment, there is no standard dosage to date. However, research suggests the following dosage guidelines for the administration of melanotan 1 [26, 27, 28]:

  • When administered through subcutaneous injection, therapeutic doses start from 1mg per day.
  • It is advisable to start with a low dose and increase it as needed.
  • Clinical trials on the use of melanotan 1 as a tanning agent have applied daily injectable doses from 0.08 mg/kg to 0.16 mg/kg for up to four weeks.
  • When used to promote tanning of the skin, MT-I injections are typically paired with scheduled UV exposure.
  • Some studies on the use of melanotan 1 to treat symptoms of erectile dysfunction indicate a therapeutic baseline of 0.025 mg/kg daily.
  • In clinical trials, the schedules of administration as well as the trial lengths are variable. Long-term studies are pending.

In its FDA-approved use as a prescribed treatment for phototoxicity due to erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP), melanotan 1 is administered as a subcutaneous implant. A single implant contains 16mg and is left in place for two months [23].


Melanotan 1 vs Melanotan 2


Melanotan 2 Dosage Guide

Melanotan 2 has not been approved by the FDA, so formal dosage guidelines are pending [29]. However, researchers have settled on certain recommendations in clinical studies. These include the following findings [15]:

  • When MT-II is injected subcutaneously, the baseline therapeutic dose is 500mcg per day.
  • Experts advise that it is best to begin with a low dose and increase it incrementally to the standard daily dose.
  • This dose is shown to be optimal for obtaining desired results with minimal side effects. However, the target dose may vary with the therapeutic context.
  • A daily dose of 1mg/kg has not been exceeded in clinical trials.
  • Schedules of administration are changeable, ranging from one to more weeks. It is not recommended to use MT-II indefinitely.
  • When applied as a tanning agent, MT-II is generally injected before scheduled windows of UV exposure. Tanning times do not exceed 60 minutes.

Supplies

To reconstitute either melanotan 1 or 2 before injection, the following materials are required:

  • Vial of bacteriostatic water
  • Vial of lyophilized MT-I or MT-II
  • Alcohol wipes
  • Sterile syringe

Reconstitution

The reconstitution process is as follows:

  1. Wipe down all materials with alcohol swabs to reduce the risk of contamination.
  2. Thrust the syringe into the bacteriostatic water vial and draw out a small amount, usually no more than 2ml, depending on the dosage.
  3. Gradually introduce the bacteriostatic water into the vial of peptide powder, allowing it to slowly dissolve the powder.
  4. Refrain from shaking or stirring the vial, as doing so can damage the contents. When properly reconstituted, the solution will appear to be clear.
  5. Any unused solution may be refrigerated for future use.

Melanotan 1 vs. Melanotan 2 | The Biggest Differences

While melanotan 1 and 2 have many shared qualities, there are several significant differences between them. Researchers handling both types of melanotan should be aware of these points of contrast between the two:

Structure [1, 30, 31]

Although both are synthetic analogs of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), an endogenous melanocortin agonist, melanotan 1 and 2 are structurally distinct molecules.

  • Melanotan 1 ([Nle4-D-Phe7]-α-MSH): Like α-MSH, melanotan 1 is classed as a linear tridecapeptide, consisting of an elongated chain of 13 amino acids. More potent than its parent hormone, melanotan 1 replaces the fourth and seventh amino acids of α-MSH, methionine and L-phenylalanine, with norleucine and D-phenylalanine respectively.
  • Melanotan 2 (Ac-Nle-[Asp-His-D-Phe-Arg-Trp-Lys]- α-MSH-NH2): In contrast to the linear structure of melanotan 1 and α-MSH, melanotan 2 is classed as a cyclic heptapeptide. It displays a ringed form and is a substantially more modified derivative of α-MSH.

Biological function [1, 2, 4, 5]

Due to their distinct structures, melanotan 1 and 2 interact differently with the body’s five melanocortin receptors, eliciting varying physiological responses. Although both are relatively non-specific melanocortin agonists, they display greater activity on certain receptors.

  • Melanotan 1 binds primarily with MC1R, which regulates melanogenesis.
  • Melanotan 2 binds with MC1R, as well as MC3R and MC4R, respectively linked with metabolic and sexual processes.

Potential therapeutic applications [1, 4, 5]

Their differing biological mechanisms lead to varying therapeutic applications.

  • Melanotan 1 has greater affinity at MC1R and thus elicits a stronger tanning effect with fewer secondary reactions. This accounts for its principal therapeutic use as a tanning agent and treatment for photosensitivity disorders. It is under study for additional benefits, such as neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects, as well as cardiovascular health.
  • Melanotan 2 also interacts with MC1R and is applied as a tanning agent. However, its affinity at MC3R and MC4R lends it the therapeutic potential to treat sexual dysfunction such as ED, behavioral disorders, and obesity. Specific behavioral contexts include autism spectrum disorders and addiction. As an obesity treatment, it has been noted to potentially suppress appetite, regulate blood sugar, and reduce body fat.

Side effects [2, 4, 15, 23]

These two peptides exhibit different side effects.

  • In general, melanotan 1 has presented fewer and less severe side effects in clinical studies. These include facial flushing, dizziness, fatigue, and melanocytic nevus.
  • Melanotan 2 has exhibited a wider range of side effects. Mild ones include repeated yawning and stretching, spontaneous erections, and uneven skin pigmentation. More severe side effects such as seizures, priapism, and melanoma are rare but in evidence.

Administration [15, 23, 26]

Researchers have established different dosage and administration practices for melanotan 1 and 2.

  • Notably, melanotan 1 has been approved by the FDA for use as a subcutaneous implant, while melanotan 2 has not.
  • When administered via subcutaneous injection, therapeutic doses of melanotan 1 range from 1 mg per day to 2 mg per day.
  • Daily injected doses of melanotan 2 range from 250mcg to 1 mg, with a standard dose of 500mcg per day.
  • Depending on the desired therapeutic outcomes, duration and frequency of use are also subject to change.

Pharmacological Research and Development [2, 6]

Perhaps unsurprisingly, the clinical research and product development of melanotan 1 and melanotan 2 have historically differed. To briefly summarize:

  • Melanotan 1 was initially developed in the 1980s as a sunless tanning agent. It has since been approved by the FDA under the generic title afamelanotide to treat erythropoietic protoporphyria, administered via subcutaneous injection.
  • Melanotan 2 has been more closely studied for its potential to treat sexual dysfunction. Researchers have also developed an MT-II analog called PT-141, now a mainstay treatment of hypoactive sexual dysfunction disorder (HSDD) in premenopausal women.

Melanotan 1 vs Melanotan 2


Where to Buy Melanotan Online? | 2022 Guide

To ensure the safety and efficacy of melanotan, researchers must purchase pure, high-quality peptides from reputable sources. Unfortunately, the internet is rife with questionable vendors and low-quality products.

Luckily, we have a solution!

The experts at Peptides.org are happy to reveal our number one online provider of research peptides:

Peptide Sciences

This vendor is not only our favorite but the leading choice of the wider scientific community for the following reasons:

  • All products meet the highest quality standards, verified through stringent third-party testing. Lab test results establishing minimum 99% purity levels are available on the company site.
  • High-grade peptides are sold at unbeatable prices, with 10mg MT-I vials at just $49.50 and 10mg MT-II vials available for only $47.50. Plus, price reductions are available on bulk purchases!
  • Fast, affordable shipping is offered to most locations around the world. Domestic shipments on orders over $200 receive free shipping with 3-day delivery, and international orders are shipped out to select destinations within 7-10 business days.
  • Rapid and safe checkout is a breeze on the SSL-encrypted website, and a variety of payment methods are accepted.
  • The vendor delivers on its commitment to unmatched customer service, staffed with knowledgeable agents that respond to client questions within just 24 hours.

Don’t wait to get your hands on the best melanotan 1 and melanotan 2 the web has to offer. Order now from our top-recommended vendor, Peptide Sciences, the favorite source of leading scientists around the world!

Buy Melanotan 2 from our #1 recommended vendor...


Bacteriostatic Water for Injection

An important part of peptide research is making sure you have the necessary tools for proper handling. This is true of Melanotan and all other peptides that are commonly injected.

To be correctly equipped, you will need materials such as alcohol wipes, insulin syringes, and bacteriostatic water.

Because getting ahold of all the required supplies can be a challenge, we at Peptides.org are glad to give you our most highly recommended source for peptide research materials.

BacteriostaticWater.org

This outstanding site is your best single source for the full set of items needed in your research. Order a deluxe kit from BacteriostaticWater.org to easily furnish your lab.

Choose from two options, including the starter research kit:

  • Bacteriostatic Water (30mL) – 3x
  • Insulin Syringes (0.5 cc/mL x 29g x ½) – 100x
  • Alcohol Prep Pads – 200x
  • Sterile Empty Glass Vial (10mL) – 1x
  • Large Needles + Syringes Combo (3cc x 21g x 1) – 10x

Or the premium research kit:

  • Bacteriostatic Water (30mL) – 5x
  • Insulin Syringes (0.5 cc/mL x 29g x ½) – 200x
  • Alcohol Prep Pads – 200x
  • Sterile Empty Glass Vial (10mL) – 2x
  • Large Needles + Syringes Combo (3cc x 21g x 1) – 20x

Elevate your research with supplies from this leading site, our favorite source for research materials.

Buy Bacteriostatic Water from our #1 recommended vendor...


Melanotan 1 vs. Melanotan 2 | Verdict

In their function as melanocortin agonists, melanotan 1 and melanotan 2 exhibit great potential in a range of therapeutic contexts.

When it comes to choosing between the two, researchers are encouraged to consider their unique cases. While melanotan 1 may be more appropriate for a desired melanogenic outcome, melanotan 2 is perhaps more applicable to cases of sexual dysfunction. Additional benefits of each are unfolding with emerging research and innovation.

We hope you have enjoyed this in-depth exploration of the data to date and come to the conclusion that neither peptide is bar-none better than the other. The use of each is highly dependent on the research context, and handlers must proceed accordingly.

Whichever peptide you choose, be sure to purchase it from a trusted source and adhere to the guidelines and precautions put forth by experts. Both peptides surely have exciting futures in a range of clinical settings, making dynamic additions to your research toolkit.


References

  1.  Mahiques-Santos L. Melanotan [Melanotan] Actas Dermosifiliogr. 2021 May;103(4):257-9. Spanish. Doi: 10.1016/j.ad.2011.08.002. Epub 2011 Nov 1. PMID: 22051769.
  2. Dorr RT, Ertl G, Levine N, Brooks C, Bangert JL, Powell MB, Humphrey S, Alberts DS. Effects of a superpotent melanotropic peptide in combination with solar UV radiation on tanning of the skin in human volunteers. Arch Dermatol. 2004 Jul;140(7):827-35. doi: 10.1001/archderm.140.7.827. PMID: 15262693.
  3. Lecha, M., Puy, H. & Deybach, JC. Erythropoietic protoporphyria. Orphanet J Rare Dis 4, 19 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1186/1750-1172-4-19.
  4. Brennan, R., Wells, J. G., & Van Hout, M. C. (2014). An unhealthy glow? A review of melanotan use and associated clinical outcomes. Performance Enhancement & Health, 3(2), 78–92. doi:10.1016/j.peh.2015.06.001.
  5. King SH, Mayorov AV, Balse-Srinivasan P, Hruby VJ, Vanderah TW, Wessells H. Melanocortin receptors, melanotropic peptides and penile erection. Curr Top Med Chem. 2007;7(11):1098-1106. PMID: 17584130; PMCID: PMC2694735.
  6. Hadley ME, Dorr RT. Melanocortin peptide therapeutics: historical milestones, clinical studies and commercialization. Peptides. 2006 Apr;27(4):921-30. doi: 10.1016/j.peptides.2005.01.029. Epub 2006 Jan 18. PMID: 16412534.
  7. Clinical trials [Internet]. EudraCT Number 2008-002446-39 – Clinical trial results – EU Clinical Trials Register. 2020 [cited 2022Sep27]. Available from: https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu/ctr-search/trial/2008-002446-39/results
  8. Giuliani D, Galantucci M, Neri L, Canalini F, Calevro A, Bitto A, Ottani A, Vandini E, Sena P, Sandrini M, Squadrito F, Zaffe D, Guarini S. Melanocortins protect against brain damage and counteract cognitive decline in a transgenic mouse model of moderate Alzheimer׳s disease. Eur J Pharmacol. 2014 Oct 5;740:144-50. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2014.06.063. Epub 2014 Jul 15. PMID: 25034807.
  9. Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. New drug therapy approvals 2019 [Internet]. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. FDA; [cited 2022Sep27]. Available from: https://www.fda.gov/drugs/new-drugs-fda-cders-new-molecular-entities-and-new-therapeutic-biological-products/new-drug-therapy-approvals-2019
  10. Clinical trials for 2019-000597-34 [Internet]. Clinical Trials Register. [cited 2022Sep27]. Available from: https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu/ctr-search/search?query=2019-000597-34
  11. Clinical trials for 2009-018024-15 [Internet]. Clinical Trials Register. [cited 2022Sep27]. Available from: https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu/ctr-search/search?query=2009-018024-15
  12. Rinne P, Penttinen AM, Nordlund W, Ahotupa M, Savontaus E. α-MSH analogue attenuates blood pressure elevation in DOCA-salt hypertensive mice. PLoS One. 2013 Aug 16;8(8):e72857. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0072857. PMID: 23977363; PMCID: PMC3745458.
  13. Edling AE, Gomes D, Weeden T, Dzuris J, Stefano J, Pan C, Williams J, Kaplan J, Perricone MA. Immunosuppressive activity of a novel peptide analog of α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) in experimental autoimmune uveitis. J Neuroimmunol. 2011 Jul;236(1-2):1-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jneuroim.2011.04.015. PMID: 21640392.
  14. An JJ, Rhee Y, Kim SH, Kim DM, Han DH, Hwang JH, Jin YJ, Cha BS, Baik JH, Lee WT, Lim SK. Peripheral effect of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone on fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle. J Biol Chem. 2007 Feb 2;282(5):2862-70. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M603454200. Epub 2006 Nov 24. PMID: 17127674.
  15. Dorr RT, Lines R, Levine N, Brooks C, Xiang L, Hruby VJ, Hadley ME. Evaluation of melanotan-II, a superpotent cyclic melanotropic peptide in a pilot phase-I clinical study. Life Sci. 1996;58(20):1777-84. doi: 10.1016/0024-3205(96)00160-9. PMID: 8637402.
  16. Giuliano F, Clément P, Droupy S, Alexandre L, Bernabé J. Melanotan-II: Investigation of the inducer and facilitator effects on penile erection in anaesthetized rat. Neuroscience. 2006;138(1):293-301. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2005.11.008. Epub 2005 Dec 19. PMID: 16360286.
  17. Ückert S, Bannowsky A, Albrecht K, Kuczyk MA. Melanocortin receptor agonists in the treatment of male and female sexual dysfunctions: results from basic research and clinical studies. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2014 Nov;23(11):1477-83. doi: 10.1517/13543784.2014.934805. Epub 2014 Aug 6. PMID: 25096243.
  18. Minakova E, Lang J, Medel-Matus JS, Gould GG, Reynolds A, Shin D, Mazarati A, Sankar R. Melanotan-II reverses autistic features in a maternal immune activation mouse model of autism. PLoS One. 2019 Jan 10;14(1):e0210389. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0210389. PMID: 30629642; PMCID: PMC6328175.
  19. Lerma-Cabrera JM, Carvajal F, Garbutt JC, Navarro M, Thiele TE. The melanocortin system as a potential target for treating alcohol use disorders: A review of pre-clinical data. Brain Res. 2020 Mar 1;1730:146628. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2019.146628. Epub 2019 Dec 28. PMID: 31891691; PMCID: PMC7023989.
  20. van der Klaauw A, Keogh J, Henning E, Stephenson C, Trowse VM, Fletcher P, Farooqi S. Role of melanocortin signalling in the preference for dietary macronutrients in human beings. Lancet. 2015 Feb 26;385 Suppl 1(Suppl 1):S12. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(15)60327-0. PMID: 26312834; PMCID: PMC6548551.
  21. Heijboer AC, van den Hoek AM, Pijl H, Voshol PJ, Havekes LM, Romijn JA, Corssmit EP. Intracerebroventricular administration of melanotan II increases insulin sensitivity of glucose disposal in mice. Diabetologia. 2005 Aug;48(8):1621-6. doi: 10.1007/s00125-005-1838-8. Epub 2005 Jun 22. PMID: 15971058.
  22. Strader AD, Shi H, Ogawa R, Seeley RJ, Reizes O. The effects of the melanocortin agonist (MT-II) on subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue in rodents. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007 Sep;322(3):1153-61. doi: 10.1124/jpet.107.123091. Epub 2007 Jun 13. PMID: 17567964.
  23. Highlights of prescribing information [Internet]. 2019 [cited 2022Sep27]. Available from: https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2019/210797s000lbl.pdf
  24. I; CPCGH. Eruptive melanocytic naevi following Melanotan injection [Internet]. The British journal of dermatology. U.S. National Library of Medicine; [cited 2022Sep27]. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19575725/
  25. Dreyer BA, Amer T, Fraser M. Melanotan-induced priapism: a hard-earned tan. BMJ Case Rep. 2019 Feb 21;12(2):e227644. doi: 10.1136/bcr-2018-227644. PMID: 30796078; PMCID: PMC6388891.
  26. Peptide Guide. Melanotan I [Internet]. Peptide Guide. [cited 2022Sep28]. Available from: https://peptide-guide.com/blogs/peptides/melanotan-1
  27. Buy melanotan 1 online (10mg) [Internet]. Core Peptides. 2022 [cited 2022Sep28]. Available from: https://corepeptides.com/peptides/melanotan-1-10mg/
  28. Melanotan: Overview, uses, side effects, precautions, interactions, dosing and reviews [Internet]. WebMD. WebMD; [cited 2022Sep28]. Available from: https://www.webmd.com/vitamins/ai/ingredientmono-884/melanotan
  29. Notice of opportunity for hearing (Nooh) manookian, Edward 8/5/16 [Internet]. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. FDA; 2016 [cited 2022Sep23]. Available from: https://www.fda.gov/regulatory-information/electronic-reading-room/notice-opportunity-hearing-nooh-manookian-edward-8516
  30. Ryakhovsky VV, Khachiyan GA, Kosovova NF, Isamiddinova EF, Ivanov AS. The first preparative solution phase synthesis of melanotan II. Beilstein J Org Chem. 2008;4:39. doi: 10.3762/bjoc.4.39. Epub 2008 Oct 30. PMID: 19043625; PMCID: PMC2587946.
  31. ChemIDplus – 0121062086 – JDKLPDJLXHXHNV-MFVUMRCOSA-n – melanotan-II – similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information. [Internet]. U.S. National Library of Medicine. National Institutes of Health; [cited 2022Sep27]. Available from: https://chem.nlm.nih.gov/chemidplus/sid/0121062086

Table of Contents
    Add a header to begin generating the table of contents