Titus Thorne

Last Updated March 13, 2023

Titus Thorne

 March 13, 2023

Curious on how does PT-141 affect women?

Inside, researchers will find everything they must know about this peptide for sexual health.

PT-141 is more commonly known as bremelanotide and is a United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved peptide used to treat low libido and related sexual dysfunction in premenopausal women.

Researchers specialized in female sexual health may have some questions about PT-141 such as:

  • Is PT-141 safe for women?
  • Can PT-141 affect pregnancy?
  • What is the best way to take PT-141?

The Peptides.org research team has put together this informative guide to respond to these and other questions regarding PT-141. 

Buy PT-141 from the #1 online Peptides vendor in the world...

Disclaimer: Peptides.org contains information about products that are intended for laboratory and research use only, unless otherwise explicitly stated. This information, including any referenced scientific or clinical research, is made available for educational purposes only. Peptides.org makes every effort to ensure that any information it shares complies with national and international standards for clinical trial information and is committed to the timely disclosure of the design and results of all interventional clinical studies for innovative treatments publicly available or that may be made available. However, research is not considered conclusive. Peptides.org makes no claims that any products referenced can cure, treat or prevent any conditions, including any conditions referenced on its website or in print materials.

What is PT-141?

PT-141 is a synthetic melanocortin receptor agonist and analog of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH). It also derives from melanotan 2, another alpha-MSH analog that is used as a sunless tanning agent.

Melanocortin peptides regulate a range of functions in the body, such as cardiovascular activity, neural activity, inflammatory response, and sexual behavior. PT-141 in particular has strong affinity at the melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4-R), which is expressed in the brain and has a significant impact on sexual behavior [1].

PT-141 for women works by replicating the biological process that causes arousal; it does not directly influence the neurotransmitters as in the case of flibanserin, an earlier FDA approved medication for HSDD.

PT-141 was first developed as bremelanotide by Palatin Technologies and has since been out-licensed to AMAG Pharmaceuticals, which now holds the exclusive North American rights to develop and commercialize bremelanotide [2].

PT-141 For Women

What is PT-141 Used For?

In 2019, the FDA approved bremelanotide (PT-141) to treat generalized hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) in premenopausal women [3, 4, 5].

HSDD is the most common sexual dysfunction disorder in women in the US, characterized by a lack of sexual desire or response to sexual stimulation for longer than six months and not due to another medical condition. In many cases, healthcare providers do not address patients’ sexual concerns due to personal discomfort, lack of familiarity with treatment, or a lack of time to address the issue [6].

Patients with a bremelanotide prescription will typically be directed to purchase Vyleesi, a prefilled autoinjector pen that is self-administered into the abdomen or thigh at least 45 minutes prior to anticipated sexual activity [3].

Qualified researchers may purchase PT-141 either in research-grade injection form, or as a nasal spray, which is typically infused with other known aphrodisiacs.

Apart from the clear benefits of PT-141 for women, researchers have also uncovered that the peptide is an effective treatment of erectile dysfunction and lack of sexual desire in men, with research into PT-141 for men still ongoing [7].

Benefits of PT-141 for Women

PT-141 has been extensively studied in clinical trials prior to gaining FDA approval to treat HSDD in premenopausal women. Here is a summary of the relevant findings of studies related to PT-141 for women.

Greater sexual satisfaction: In a 12-week, placebo-controlled trial involving over 300 premenopausal women with various forms of sexual dysfunction, PT-141 was found to increase the number of satisfying sexual events, while enhancing female sexual function and reducing sexual distress [8].

Restored sexual desire: In two identical phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials conducted to examine the effects of bremelanotide on 856 premenopausal women, those treated with PT-141 sustainably improved their hypoactive sexual desire disorder symptoms, with significant improvements on metrics like the Female Sexual Function Index and the Female Sexual Distress Scale [9, 10].

Improved mood and wellbeing: Melanocortin peptides like PT-141 have been shown to induce positive changes in dopamine levels in the brains of rodents, achieved by activating presynaptic MC4Rs on neurons in the mPOA of the hypothalamus. PT-141 administration has been shown to result in higher dopamine levels due to greater sexual satisfaction, inducing improvements in mood and a greater sense of well-being [11, 12, 13].

Weight management: Apart from its role in regulating sexual desire, the melanocortin 4 receptor is key to appetite control, whereas agonistic activity at this receptor induces the feeling of being full. In two randomized clinical trials conducted on obese women, researchers found that PT-141’s activity at the melanocortin 4 receptor reduced caloric intake and increased weight loss in the patients [14].

PT-141 For Women

PT-141 Side Effects

Multiple clinical trials have demonstrated that PT-141 is safe and well tolerated in female patients with hypoactive sexual desire disorder [7, 15].

Researchers administering PT-141 injections should expect a low likelihood injection-related side effects. These can include inflammation or discomfort at the site of injection, which can be minimized by rotating injection sites with each PT-141 injection.

Data from PT-141 clinical trials indicates the following to be the most common side effects unrelated to the injections themselves [2, 9]:

  • Headaches
  • Facial flushing
  • Nausea
  • Swelling
  • General discomfort

There have been no clinically significant interactions reported between alcohol and PT-141, however the peptide should not be administered to subjects with cardiovascular disease or high blood pressure [2, 16].

Importantly, researchers are advised to refrain from administering PT-141 to subjects who are pregnant or who may become pregnant. It is not currently known if PT-141 can cause harm to an unborn baby [16].

Notably, PT-141 has been reported to induce mild serum enzyme elevations and in rare cases has been linked to acute liver injury [17].

PT-141 For Women | PT-141 vs. Flibanserin

Sexual function issues in women are more common than one might think, with nearly half of women in the United States reporting being affected. Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is the most frequently reported issue, and is defined as a “deficiency of sexual thoughts, feelings, or receptiveness to sexual stimulation” [6].

Left untreated, HSDD can have a significant negative impact on the health and quality of life of women. Before the FDA approved bremelanotide (PT-141) as a treatment of HSDD in premenopausal women in 2019, the first-line treatment was flibanserin, a 5-HT receptor modulator that was originally designed as an antidepressant medication.

While flibanserin has been proven effective in treating HSDD in women, it is also linked to adverse effects like CNS depression with somnolence and sedation, low blood pressure, dizziness, and fatigue [18, 19, 20].

By contrast, PT-141 for women appears to lack these side effects. While PT-141 side effects are observed from time to time, the peptide does not directly affect serotonin levels and does not induce depression of the central nervous system. In addition, flibanserin cannot be taken with alcohol, while PT-141 does not have this contraindication [21].

Another advantage of PT-141 for women is that the peptide may be administered either as an intranasal spray or as a subcutaneous injection before sexual activity, with both methods known to produce effects in under one hour. On the other hand, flibanserin must be taken once per day at bedtime to avoid symptoms of CNS depression [22].

PT-141 For Women

Where to Buy PT-141 Online | 2023 Guide

Due to increased demand, a number of online vendors are now offering PT-141. However, it is important to thoroughly vet your source, as the largely unregulated peptides market is filled with low-purity products or plain counterfeits.

Our team has purchased peptides from multiple vendors, grading each one based on peptide quality, shipping speed, and customer service.

In our experience, Peptide Sciences is the top source of research-grade PT-141. They sit atop the peptides industry for the following reasons:

  • USA production: Peptide Sciences works only with WHO/GMP and ISO 9001:2008 approved manufacturers to ensure that their peptides are produced in registered US facilities and subject to strict controls.
  • Lab-tested peptides: This vendor submits each batch of PT-141 to a third-party laboratory for state-of-the-art purity testing via mass spectrometry (MS) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results are posted to Peptide Sciences’ easy-to-navigate website and product pages.
  • Fair prices: Qualified researchers may buy research-grade PT-141 at $49.50 per 10mg vial, and bulk orders are eligible for discounts. Even at the single vial price, the cost per standard PT-141 injection of 1.75mg comes out to under $10.
  • Fast shipping: US orders take only two to three business days to arrive, with $200+ orders qualifying for free shipping. Orders to select overseas locations usually take seven to ten business days to arrive and fees vary.
  • Customer service: Peptide Sciences’ team of trained customer service professionals is available throughout the week to address any questions or concerns.

If you’re looking for research-grade PT-141, head directly to Peptide Sciences, a trusted name within the research chemicals industry.

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Nasal Spray vs. Injectable PT-141

While the gold standard form of PT-141 administration is subcutaneous injection, research has shown that a research-grade nasal spray may be equally as effective.

A PT-141 spray has the added benefits of ease of administration and portability. A nasal solution is typically sold already reconstituted, not requiring any additional steps or preparation. Many PT-141 nasal spray formulas do not even require refrigeration, unlike PT-141 that has been reconstituted but is not immediately ready for injection.

A PT-141 nasal spray may also have a slightly quicker onset of effects, compared to the injection route. However, any difference is likely to be minimal, seeing as both forms of PT-141 are typically administered 30-45 minutes prior to sexual stimulation.

If you are interested in buying a convenient PT-141 nasal spray, visit PureRawz

PureRawz’ innovative Arouse spray contains 5mg PT-141 and 5mg Oxytocin, a potent vasodilator that works to deliver blood to the female sexual organs, leading to a heightened sexual experience [23].

Buy PT-141 Nasal Spray from our #1 recommended vendor...

Bacteriostatic Water for Injection

Your supply of PT-141 is not all you will need to conduct your research according to the highest standards. A researcher should have access to supplementary supplies that enable proper peptide storage, preparation, and injection.

What supplies are needed? You should stock up on bacteriostatic water, sterile vials, and insulin needles, among other essential lab materials.

Getting properly equipped can be a headache for researchers given the lack of credible suppliers who offer the full range of required items.

We at Peptides.org understand this challenge, so we set out to find one great retailer that carries all the ancillary supplies you need for peptide research.


This top-recommended site delivers all supplies in sleek and efficient packages for your convenience. You will not have to worry about whether you have the correct materials with a deluxe research kit from BacteriostaticWater.org.

The two options include the starter research kit, containing:

  • Bacteriostatic Water (30mL) – 3x
  • Insulin Syringes (0.5 cc/mL x 29g x ½) – 100x
  • Alcohol Prep Pads – 200x
  • Sterile Empty Glass Vial (10mL) – 1x
  • Large Needles + Syringes Combo (3cc x 21g x 1) – 10x

The popular premium research kit features:

  • Bacteriostatic Water (30mL) – 5x
  • Insulin Syringes (0.5 cc/mL x 29g x ½) – 200x
  • Alcohol Prep Pads – 200x
  • Sterile Empty Glass Vial (10mL) – 2x
  • Large Needles + Syringes Combo (3cc x 21g x 1) – 20x

Set yourself up for research with the convenience and unmatched quality of a supply kit from this winning provider.

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PT-141 and Women | Verdict

PT-141 is a melanocortin receptor agonist that has been approved by the FDA to treat libido issues in women. Extensive testing and studies have shown that this peptide can safely and effectively reduce or eliminate the symptoms caused by hypoactive sexual desire disorder.

With its excellent safety record, PT-141 has significant advantages over flibanserin, a 5-HT1A receptor agonist that has been linked to adverse effects due to its effect of CNS depression.

In addition, PT-141 may be administered any time prior to intercourse, whether as a painless injection or a nasal spray.

Researchers planning to investigate PT-141 for women are advised to visit Peptide Sciences—a leader within the research chemicals industry.


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  13. Sharot, T., Guitart-Masip, M., Korn, C. W., Chowdhury, R., & Dolan, R. J. (2012, July 12). How dopamine enhances an optimism bias in humans. Current Biology. Retrieved August 23, 2022, from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960982212006458
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