Last Updated January 31, 2024

 January 31, 2024

Researchers curious about PT-141 side effects will note that this research chemical has been extensively tested and is an FDA-approved treatment for generalized hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) in premenopausal women.

This guide will outline what PT-141 is, the main benefits it offers, and everything that researchers need to know about its side effects before conducting further experiments.

For researchers running an experiment with PT-141, they should find full details of this chemical’s main side effects and how it has been dosed in past studies.

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What is PT-141?

PT-141 – also known as bremelanotide – is a melanocortin receptor agonist that was recently approved by the US FDA for the treatment of generalized hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) in premenopausal women [1]. It was developed by Palatin Technologies and has since been out-licensed to AMAG Pharmaceuticals Inc., which holds the exclusive North American rights to develop and commercialize bremelanotide [2].

PT-141 is currently available in the US under the brand name “Vyleesi” as an on-demand, self-administered subcutaneous HSDD therapy [3]. It is also available online as a research chemical and may be purchased by researchers interested in conducting experiments.

We will look at some of the top benefits offered by PT-141 in the following section.

pt-141 side effects

Benefits of PT-141 | Top 5

Researchers in the early stages of planning experiments or clinical trials with PT-141 may be curious about the benefits offered by this peptide. The following top five benefits should help illuminate potential areas for further research.

Increases Sexual Desire in Premenopausal Women With Acquired HSDD

PT-141’s top benefit – and the basis for its FDA approval – is that it increases sexual desire in premenopausal women with acquired HSDD. Successful Phase 2 and Phase 3 clinical trials have shown that bremelanotide has a “modest” yet “statistically significant” impact on patients’ sexual desire when self-administered up to 2 hours prior to intercourse [2].

The latest research into PT-141 indicates that it stimulates the release of dopamine [4], but its exact role in increasing female desire remains a fruitful avenue for further research.

Increases Sexual Satisfaction in Patients With HSDD

Besides increasing sexual desire, PT-141 also appears to increase overall sexual satisfaction in female patients. Phase 2 and 3 clinical trials have found that premenopausal women with HSDD experienced a greater frequency of “satisfying sexual events” after self-administering PT-141, compared with women who took a placebo [5].

In a 2016 trial, women who took 1.75 mg of PT-141 45 minutes before intercourse registered a +3.6 increase in sexual satisfaction according to their Female Sexual Function Index-desire domain score. The 12-week trial also found that lower doses of PT-141 (1.25mg) were effective but to a much lesser extent, with women reporting a +0.7 increase on average [5].

Lowers Intercourse-related Distress in Patients With HSDD

A key benefit of PT-141 is its ability to lower distress related to low sexual desire when taken by premenopausal women with acquired HSDD. This finding comes from two identical Phase 3 placebo-controlled clinical trials where female patients with HSDD were asked questions related to a Female Sexual Distress Scale-Desire/Arousal/Orgasm assessment. Both trials found that women felt “significantly less distress” after taking PT-141, compared with patients who received a placebo [6].

Potential Erectile Dysfunction Treatment for Male Patients With Insufficient Response to Sildenafil

Although PT-141’s only indicated use is to treat premenopausal women with acquired HSDD, a 2004 study found that it created a “statistically significant erectile response” when administered to male patients with erectile dysfunction (ED) who had an insufficient response to sildenafil (Viagra) [7].

This research shows that further research in this area may highlight PT-141’s potential use as an ED therapy alongside other treatments like sildenafil.

Improves Intercourse Satisfaction in Male ED Patients

The fifth benefit of PT-141 is that it produces “considerably higher” levels of sexual satisfaction in male patients with ED, according to a 2008 study. The study found that 33.5% of the 342 married males who took part in the test experienced a “positive clinical result” after taking PT-141 [8].

Hopefully, this brief review of the top five benefits offered by PT-141 has highlighted potential areas for further research. It’s now time to turn our attention to the main focus of this guide; PT-141’s side effects.

PT-141 Side Effects

The main focus of this guide is PT-141 side effects and in this section, we’ll explore all documented adverse events related to this chemical’s use.

Overall, PT-141 is considered to be a safe and well-tolerated drug when taken at the prescribed doses. It is the second medication to be granted US FDA approval for the treatment of HSDD and can be prescribed to premenopausal women with acquired HSDD [2].

PT-141 is designed to be self-administered, as desired, by patients at least 45 minutes before sexual intercourse. As the method of delivery is subcutaneous injection, it may, in rare instances, cause minor injection-related side effects such as [2]:

  • Itching at or around the injection site
  • Swelling
  • General discomfort

However, these side effects are rare and were not reported at a rate deemed statistically significant during any phase 2 or 3 clinical trials involving PT-141.

According to data from Phase 2 clinical trials, patients reported minor adverse events (AEs) at the following rates [2]:

  • Headaches (11%)
  • Facial flushing (20.4%)
  • Nausea (39.9%)

According to the results of a longer phase 3 clinical trial, lasting 52-weeks, patients reported AEs at the following rates [9]:

  • Nausea (40.4%)
  • Headache (12.0%)
  • Flushing (20.6%)

The only serious AE to occur during long-term (open-label) PT-141 trials was nausea and it was not severe enough to warrant medical attention [9]. PT-141 does not interact adversely with ethanol and has no severe interactions with prescription medications.

Both phase 2 trials involving PT-141 dosed at 1.75 mg have concluded that it is “safe and well-tolerated”. It can be safely taken once per day up to a maximum of 8 times per month [10].

The latest PT-141 research has found that it can cause mild elevations in “serum enzyme” levels during therapy. It has also been linked to “acute liver injury in “rare” cases [11].

While PT-141’s side effects in premenopausal women with acquired HSDD have been thoroughly researched and are well understood, less is known about how it affects non-premenopausal women or male patients. It is not currently indicated to treat patients in these groups, however past trials have examined its effects in male patients.

In the above-cited 2004 study involving healthy male patients with ED and an insufficient response to Viagra, PT-141 was found to be “safe and well-tolerated” when taken at doses of up to 10 mg for 12 weeks [7].

In the 2008 study where male patients were given intranasal sprays of PT-141, researchers noted that it caused minor “drug-related adverse effects” including [8]:

  • Headaches
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting

The small sample sizes and short durations of these studies mean there is insufficient data to draw meaningful conclusions regarding PT-141. This clearly shows the need for further long-term clinical testing and draws attention to a possible avenue for further research [12].

Having reviewed the main known side effects of PT-141, and highlighted areas where further testing and clinical research is required, it’s time to consider the best vendor for qualified researchers interested in conducting research with this chemical.

pt-141 side effects

Where To Buy PT-141 Online? | 2024 Edition

Researchers looking for a place to buy PT-141 online will find full details of our preferred vendors in this section. Qualified researchers with authorization and competence to conduct laboratory testing on peptides may purchase PT-141 online and have it shipped to their address.

To help researchers along, the team at has made test purchases of peptides from a variety of reputable retailers. We graded each vendor based on product quality, value for money, and timeliness of delivery provided. We also considered the security of their website, payment options, and customer support.

Here are our top recommendation on where to buy PT-141 online:

Limitless Life

Limitless Life is another vendor that excels in all areas, including quality control, pricing, and shipping.

Here are some key points about this supplier:

  • Quality Control: All Limitless Life compounds, PT-141 included, undergo rigorous HPLC-MS testing by multiple third-party laboratories. This is done to ensure peptide identity and purity. This allows Limitless Life to produce the highest quality PT-141 available for research.
  • Secure, User-Friendly Website: Our team loves the look and feel of the Limitless Life website. It’s secured with SSL technology so all personal data and payment information are kept confidential.
  • Unbeatable Service: Researchers wary about placing a large order of PT-141 with an online vendor will be pleased to know that Limitless Life has a team of industry-leading support specialists on hand to answer any questions. Their service staff is available 7-days a week to answer any and all questions from researchers.
  • Best Reship and Return Policy: One of the reasons we love Limitless Life is because they take care of researchers. Limitless Life understands the needs and concerns of the community and offers a flexible return and reship policy. This offers researches peace of mind and confidence that they will receive their peptides for study.
  • Shipping Insurance: As well, Limitless Life offers affordable shipping insurance in case of lost or damaged packages. This ensures research peptides arrive on time and allow researchers to order with no risk.
  • Research-Use Only: Limitless Life is dedicated to the research community. As such, they emphasize that their products are only for research. They do so to ensure responsible distribution. This is their commitment to the research community and allows them to produce the highest quality of peptides.

On top of that, Limitless Life also offers PT-141 in two formats. They offer the aliquot PT-141 lypholized powers, as well as the most potent PT-141 nasal spray available online to researchers.

Overall, Limitless Life is the best place for researchers to source PT-141 online. Use the code below to save 10% off the next order:


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PT-141 Side Effects | Verdict

Researchers curious about PT-141’s side effects have hopefully found all their questions answered by this informative guide.

Based on the available literature, PT-141 appears to be a safe, well-tolerated, FDA-approved treatment for HSDD in premenopausal women and has an excellent safety record. It has also been studied in small trials involving male patients and has also been found to be safe and produce few side effects.

Crucially, PT-141 is not known to interact adversely with alcohol or prescription drugs and appears to be a relatively safe chemical for conducting further research. We have outlined key areas, notably ED treatment, where a well-designed clinical trial involving PT-141 would illuminate more details regarding its safety in vivo testing.

For researchers looking to procure PT-141 in powder or spray format, this is our top-rated vendor as of writing.


  1. Dhillon S, Keam SJ. Bremelanotide: First Approval. Drugs. 2019 Sep;79(14):1599-1606. doi: 10.1007/s40265-019-01187-w. PMID: 31429064.
  2. Mayer D, Lynch SE. Bremelanotide: New Drug Approved for Treating Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder. Ann Pharmacother. 2020 Jul;54(7):684-690. doi: 10.1177/1060028019899152. Epub 2020 Jan 1. PMID: 31893927.
  3. Bremelanotide (Vyleesi) for hypoactive sexual desire disorder. Med Lett Drugs Ther. 2019 Jul 29;61(1577):114-116. PMID: 31381550.
  4. Pfaus JG, Sadiq A, Spana C, Clayton AH. The neurobiology of bremelanotide for the treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder in premenopausal women. CNS Spectr. 2021 Jan 18:1-9. doi: 10.1017/S109285292100002X. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33455598.
  5. Clayton, A. H., Althof, S. E., Kingsberg, S., DeRogatis, L. R., Kroll, R., Goldstein, I., Kaminetsky, J., Spana, C., Lucas, J., Jordan, R., & Portman, D. J. (2016). Bremelanotide for female sexual dysfunctions in premenopausal women: a randomized, placebo-controlled dose-finding trial. Women's health (London, England), 12(3), 325–337.
  6. Kingsberg SA, Clayton AH, Portman D, Williams LA, Krop J, Jordan R, Lucas J, Simon JA. Bremelanotide for the Treatment of Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder: Two Randomized Phase 3 Trials. Obstet Gynecol. 2019 Nov;134(5):899-908. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000003500. PMID: 31599840; PMCID: PMC6819021.
  7. Rosen, R. C., Diamond, L. E., Earle, D. C., Shadiack, A. M., & Molinoff, P. B. (2004). Evaluation of the safety, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic effects of subcutaneously administered PT-141, a melanocortin receptor agonist, in healthy male subjects and in patients with an inadequate response to Viagra. International journal of impotence research, 16(2), 135–142.
  8. Safarinejad, M. R., & Hosseini, S. Y. (2008). Salvage of sildenafil failures with bremelanotide: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study. The Journal of urology, 179(3), 1066–1071.
  9. Simon JA, Kingsberg SA, Portman D, Williams LA, Krop J, Jordan R, Lucas J, Clayton AH. Long-Term Safety and Efficacy of Bremelanotide for Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder. Obstet Gynecol. 2019 Nov;134(5):909-917. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000003514. PMID: 31599847; PMCID: PMC6819023.
  10. Althof S, Derogatis LR, Greenberg S, Clayton AH, Jordan R, Lucas J, Spana C. Responder Analyses from a Phase 2b Dose-Ranging Study of Bremelanotide. J Sex Med. 2019 Aug;16(8):1226-1235. doi: 10.1016/j.jsxm.2019.05.012. Epub 2019 Jul 2. PMID: 31277966.
  11. LiverTox: Clinical and Research Information on Drug-Induced Liver Injury [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; 2012–. Bremelanotide. 2021 Aug 20. PMID: 34436837.
  12. Kim S, Cho MC, Cho SY, Chung H, Rajasekaran MR. Novel Emerging Therapies for Erectile Dysfunction. World J Mens Health. 2021 Jan;39(1):48-64. doi: 10.5534/wjmh.200007. Epub 2020 Mar 16. PMID: 32202086; PMCID: PMC7752520.

Scientifically Fact Checked by:

David Warmflash, M.D.

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