Last Updated January 31, 2024

 January 31, 2024

Researchers curious about PT-141 benefits may be aware that this peptide received US FDA approval in 2019 for the treatment of female patients diagnosed with generalized hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD).

But less is known about PT-141’s other purported benefits and there is strong interest among researchers in what this research chemical may have to offer.

This guide will summarize all known research into PT-141 and explain what it is, the top 5 benefits it offers, and the main side effects it causes in patients and test subjects.

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What is PT-141?

PT-141 is a code name used during the developmental phase of bremelanotide, a peptide derivative of thyroxine that acts as a melanocortin receptor agonist. PT-141 was originally developed by Palatin Technologies, which funded initial Phase 3 clinical studies.

In 2019, PT-141 received US FDA approval for the treatment of premenopausal women with acquired, generalized hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD). At the time of writing, the manufacture of PT-141 is out-licensed to AMAG Pharmaceuticals Inc. who holds the exclusive North American rights to develop bremelanotide (PT-141) [1].

pt-141 benefits

Is PT-141 Legal?

Yes. PT-141, commonly referred to by its trade name bremelanotide, was granted first approval by the US FDA in 2019 and is the second medication to be approved by the US FDA for the treatment of HSDD. It is currently available in the US under the brand name “Vyleesi” as an on-demand, self-administered subcutaneous therapy for patients with HSDD [2].

HSDD is a condition defined as a lack of sexual desire that causes significant distress or interpersonal difficulty. Patients who have been diagnosed with this condition may be prescribed bremelanotide. Patients with a valid prescription can legally purchase brand name or generic versions of bremelanotide [3].

Bremelanotide is also widely available online as a research chemical and is usually labeled as PT-141. It can be purchased by qualified researchers for experimentation purposes only.

Now that we’ve briefly looked at PT-141’s legal status, let’s turn our attention to the top five benefits that this peptide offers.

Benefits of PT-141 | Top 5

Researchers curious about the benefits of PT-141 will note that this research chemical is more commonly referred to as “bremelanotide”. A literature search of Medline, SCOPUS, and EMBASE using the search terms “bremelanotide”, “bremelanotide injection”, “Vyleesi”, and “melanocortin 4 receptor agonist” revealed numerous reports of phase 2 and 3 clinical trials performed with PT-141, from which the following top five benefits can be summarized [1].

PT-141 Increases Sexual Desire in Patients With Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder (HSDD)

PT-141’s primary clinical benefit is that it increases sexual desire in patients who have been diagnosed with HSDD. Data from phase 2 and 3 clinical trials show that PT-141 has a “statistically significant impact on sexual desire elements” when patients with HSDD self-administer the drug subcutaneously 45 minutes to 2 hours before engaging in intercourse [1].

While PT-141’s exact mechanism of action remains an area for further research, current research suggests that it actives “presynaptic MC4Rs on neurons in the mPOA of the hypothalamus” and stimulates the release of dopamine, learning to an increase in sexual desire. , leading [4].

PT-141 Elevates Sexual Satisfaction in Premenopausal Women With HSDD

PT-141’s second main benefit is that it increases the frequency with which premenopausal women with HSDD experience “satisfying sexual events”.

Data from a 12-week 2016 clinical trial showed that PT-141 increases the female sexual function index total score of female volunteers by +0.7 when administered at a dose of 1.25 mg. This increased to +3.6 when a higher 1.75 mg dose of PT-141e was self-administered by the patients. This clinical trial showed that premenopausal women with HSDD experienced a strong benefit from using PT-141 up to 2 hours prior to intercourse and reported a higher Female Sexual Function Index-desire domain score compared with patients who received a placebo [5].

PT-141 Reduces Distress Related to Low Sexual Desire in Premenopausal Women With HSDD

PT-141’s third main benefit is that it reduces distress related to low sexual desire in premenopausal women with HSDD. According to data from two identical phase 3 trials, PT-141 reduced “distress related to low sexual desire” and contributed to a more positive experience during intercourse [6].

The trials found that patients who received PT-141 scored lower on the “Female Sexual Distress Scale-Desire/Arousal/Orgasm item” compared with those who received a placebo. This indicates that PT-141 is beneficial for premenopausal women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder who experience intercourse-related distress [6].

PT-141 Is a Potential Alternative Treatment for Erectile Dysfunction (ED)

While PT-141’s FDA approval limits its use solely to the treatment of HSDD, a 2004 study found that it “may provide an alternative treatment for erectile dysfunction (ED) with a potentially broad patient base”. This study involved a group of healthy male subjects who reported achieving an erection “less than 50% of the time” after taking a standard dose of 100 mg sildenafil (Viagra). PT-141 (bremelanotide) was administered at doses ranging from 0.3 to 10 mg and was found to produce a “statistically significant erectile response” at all doses of 1.0 mg or greater [7].

This research indicates that PT-141 may be beneficial for healthy male patients who have an inadequate response to Viagra and require additional therapy to achieve an erection. PT-141 is currently viewed as a potential alternative treatment for ED that may supplement other therapies such as Viagra [7].

PT-141 Improves Intercourse Satisfaction in Patients With ED

A 2008 study involving 342 married males (28 to 59 years old) with ED who had an inadequate response to sildenafil were randomly assigned to receive either 10 mg PT-141 as an intranasal spray 45 minutes to 2 hours before intercourse or a placebo. After at least 16 doses or attempts, 33.5% of men in the PT-141 group had a “positive clinical result” compared to just 8.5% of men in the placebo group and experienced a “considerably higher” level of sexual satisfaction [8].

These findings indicate that PT-141 has the potential to improve sexual satisfaction in male patients with ED and could be considered as a supplementary ED therapy alongside Viagra.

After reviewing PT-141’s top five benefits, it’s time to briefly summarize its main side effects.

PT-141 Side Effects

Researchers curious about PT-141’s side effects will note that bremelanotide is only the second medication ever to be approved by the US FDA for the treatment of HSDD and is considered to be a safe and well-tolerated drug [1].

PT-141 can be self-administered, as desired, subcutaneously 45 minutes prior to intercourse and is not known to cause any serious adverse events (AEs) or reactions with drugs or ethanol.

Drawing on data from phase 2 and 3 clinical trials, the main side effects linked to PT-141 use are [1]:

  • Nausea (39.9%)
  • Facial flushing (20.4%)
  • Headaches (11%)

The main side effects linked to the long-term (52-week) use of PT-141 are [9]:

  • Nausea (40.4%)
  • Flushing (20.6%)
  • Headache (12.0%)

Long-term (open-label) testing involving over 270 female patients found that nausea was the only severe AE to occur [9]. Phase 2 trials involving PT-141 have concluded that it is “safe and well-tolerated” when administered to patients at a dose of 1.75 mg [10].

While PT-141 is generally considered to be a safe treatment for HSDD, the latest research has indicated that it has the ability to cause “mild serum enzyme elevations”. In very rare instances, PT-141 has also been implicated in cases of “acute liver injury” [11].

As PT-141 has not received FDA approval for the treatment of ED, less is known about its side effects in male patients. However, clinical trials have indicated that PT-141 is “safe and well-tolerated” [7], and causes minor “drug-related adverse effects” [8]. As noted by Kim S et al, PT-141’s efficacy as a treatment for ED “still needs to be validated by well-designed clinical trials” [12].

After reviewing the main side effects of PT-141 (bremelanotide), we can now reveal our top recommendation for researchers wishing to buy PT-141 online in 2023.

pt-141 benefits

Where To Buy PT-141 Online? | 2024 Edition

Qualified researchers and laboratory professionals may readily purchase PT-141 from a number of online suppliers.

But with so many vendors to choose from, researchers may be uncertain about which to trust. To answer that question, our team made test purchases of PT-141 from several leading sources.

We rated each peptide vendor according to peptide quality, value for money, speed of delivery, and secondary factors like payments and customer service.

Here is our top pick:

Limitless Life

Based on our survey and firsthand experience, Limitless Life is one of the top vendors offering PT-141 for sale online.

Here are a few reasons why we rate them so highly:

  • Rigorous Independent Testing: Limitless Life gets each batch of PT-141 tested by a third-party laboratory to show that their PT-141 is 99% pure and has passed stringent controls before being offered for sale.
  • Genuine Peptides: Furthermore, Limitless Life peptides are made in registered domestic facilities and undergo rigorous HPLC-MS screening for quality assurance.
  • Quick, Secure Checkout: Limitless Life has a well-maintained, highly secure website with the latest SSL encryption. They accept a range of payment options and keep all customer data highly secure.
  • Payment Methods Galore: As mentioned, this vendor facilitates a range of convenient payment methods, including credit cards, Zelle, CashApp, and cryptocurrencies.
  • Fast Shipping: Limitless Life is one of the only research peptide vendors to offer FedEx two-day shipping standard. They also over overnight shipping options and affordable shipping insurance for domestic orders. Finally, Limitless Life ships internationally, too.

Not only that, but Limitless Life also offers the most powerful PT-141 nasal spray available to researchers. A true game changer!

Last, but not least:

Qualified researchers can get 10% off the next order with Limitless Life by clicking the button below and using this code:


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Bacteriostatic Water and PT-141

Experts agree that to follow the proper methods of peptide administration, reconstitution, and storage, a standard set of supplies is required. This is true of PT-141 and all other research peptides.

The approved items put forth by specialists are bacteriostatic water and sterilizing alcohol wipes, as well as sterile needles, syringes, and vials.

Finding and keeping all of these items in stock can be a challenge and a deterrent to the research, but it is quite necessary.

As such, the team at put together a quick list for researchers and what they need in the lab:

  • Bacteriostatic Water
  • Insulin Syringes
  • Alcohol Prep Pads
  • Sterile Empty Glass Vials
  • Large Needles + Syringes

PT-141 Benefits | Verdict

Hopefully, this guide to the main benefits of PT-141 has answered any questions that researchers may have had about this peptide. PT-141 (bremelanotide) is a safe, effective, FDA-approved therapy for HSDD and appears to offer the potential for further research. It may potentially offer benefits to male patients suffering from ED, and this makes it an ideal candidate for further clinical research.

While phase 2 and 3 clinical trials have indicated that PT-141 causes some minor side effects, its potential use as a therapy to increase sexual arousal and satisfaction appears to outweigh these risks.


  1. Mayer D, Lynch SE. Bremelanotide: New Drug Approved for Treating Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder. Ann Pharmacother. 2020 Jul;54(7):684-690. doi: 10.1177/1060028019899152. Epub 2020 Jan 1. PMID: 31893927.
  2. Dhillon S, Keam SJ. Bremelanotide: First Approval. Drugs. 2019 Sep;79(14):1599-1606. doi: 10.1007/s40265-019-01187-w. PMID: 31429064.
  3. Bremelanotide (Vyleesi) for hypoactive sexual desire disorder. Med Lett Drugs Ther. 2019 Jul 29;61(1577):114-116. PMID: 31381550.
  4. Pfaus JG, Sadiq A, Spana C, Clayton AH. The neurobiology of bremelanotide for the treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder in premenopausal women. CNS Spectr. 2021 Jan 18:1-9. doi: 10.1017/S109285292100002X. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33455598.
  5. Clayton, A. H., Althof, S. E., Kingsberg, S., DeRogatis, L. R., Kroll, R., Goldstein, I., Kaminetsky, J., Spana, C., Lucas, J., Jordan, R., & Portman, D. J. (2016). Bremelanotide for female sexual dysfunctions in premenopausal women: a randomized, placebo-controlled dose-finding trial. Women's health (London, England), 12(3), 325–337.
  6. Kingsberg SA, Clayton AH, Portman D, Williams LA, Krop J, Jordan R, Lucas J, Simon JA. Bremelanotide for the Treatment of Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder: Two Randomized Phase 3 Trials. Obstet Gynecol. 2019 Nov;134(5):899-908. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000003500. PMID: 31599840; PMCID: PMC6819021.
  7. Rosen, R. C., Diamond, L. E., Earle, D. C., Shadiack, A. M., & Molinoff, P. B. (2004). Evaluation of the safety, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic effects of subcutaneously administered PT-141, a melanocortin receptor agonist, in healthy male subjects and in patients with an inadequate response to Viagra. International journal of impotence research, 16(2), 135–142.
  8. Safarinejad, M. R., & Hosseini, S. Y. (2008). Salvage of sildenafil failures with bremelanotide: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study. The Journal of urology, 179(3), 1066–1071.
  9. Simon JA, Kingsberg SA, Portman D, Williams LA, Krop J, Jordan R, Lucas J, Clayton AH. Long-Term Safety and Efficacy of Bremelanotide for Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder. Obstet Gynecol. 2019 Nov;134(5):909-917. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000003514. PMID: 31599847; PMCID: PMC6819023.
  10. Althof S, Derogatis LR, Greenberg S, Clayton AH, Jordan R, Lucas J, Spana C. Responder Analyses from a Phase 2b Dose-Ranging Study of Bremelanotide. J Sex Med. 2019 Aug;16(8):1226-1235. doi: 10.1016/j.jsxm.2019.05.012. Epub 2019 Jul 2. PMID: 31277966.
  11. LiverTox: Clinical and Research Information on Drug-Induced Liver Injury [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; 2012–. Bremelanotide. 2021 Aug 20. PMID: 34436837.
  12. Kim S, Cho MC, Cho SY, Chung H, Rajasekaran MR. Novel Emerging Therapies for Erectile Dysfunction. World J Mens Health. 2021 Jan;39(1):48-64. doi: 10.5534/wjmh.200007. Epub 2020 Mar 16. PMID: 32202086; PMCID: PMC7752520.

Scientifically Fact Checked by:

David Warmflash, M.D.

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