Titus Thorne

Last Updated April 9, 2022

Titus Thorne

 April 9, 2022

Researchers interested in investigating TB-500 may be worried about potential TB-500 side effects. While this research chemical has no known safe dose in humans, past studies have indicated that it may cause health complications. This A-Z guide will aim to provide researchers with a thorough overview of TB-500’s known side effects and overall safety profile. 

Below, researchers unfamiliar with TB-500 will find detailed information about this chemical’s purported benefits, effects, and documented side effects, including its link to cancer. Those interested in exploring TB-500 further will find a complete guide to ordering this research chemical online including details of our preferred vendor. 

Let’s get started!

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Disclaimer: Peptides.org contains information about products that are intended for laboratory and research use only, unless otherwise explicitly stated. This information, including any referenced scientific or clinical research, is made available for educational purposes only. Peptides.org makes every effort to ensure that any information it shares complies with national and international standards for clinical trial information and is committed to the timely disclosure of the design and results of all interventional clinical studies for innovative treatments publicly available or that may be made available. However, research is not considered conclusive. Peptides.org makes no claims that any products referenced can cure, treat or prevent any conditions, including any conditions referenced on its website or in print materials.


What is TB-500?

TB-500 is the synthetic version of a naturally-occurring peptide called Thymosin Beta-4, which is 43 amino acids long. While Thymosin Beta-4 was first isolated from the thymus gland, it is now known to be distributed and located across all cells with the exception of red blood cells. In particular, Thymosin Beta-4 levels are highest in white blood cells, platelets, and other circulatory cells [1]. 

Researchers are actively investigating TB-500’s effect on the following functions [2]:

  • Tissue protection
  • Wound repair
  • Regeneration of cells in skin, eyes, the heart and central nervous system
  • Cell migration and survival

Our review of the available research shows that Thymosin Beta-4 has been used as a doping agent in horse racing.

When injected into horses, it can dramatically improve their race-day performance and recover from tissue injuries far faster. Which is why its use in horse racing is heavily frowned upon [3]:

“Trainer Paul Jones faces a longer time on the sidelines than the banned Essendon AFL players after he was charged with possession and administration of peptide Thymosin Beta 4.

… The first of those charges is of administration and carries a minimum mandatory penalty of two years disqualification.

…Synthetic peptides are reported to increase muscle size, strength and stamina, enhance tissue repair and reduce recovery time.”

To be clear, TB-500 has not been approved for human consumption and is available solely as a research chemical.

Take a look at any online vendor selling peptides and this will be stated explicitly in their disclaimer. 

So what are the purported benefits of TB-500?


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Benefits of Thymosin Beta-4

While TB-500 is a research chemical, a number of scientific studies involving animals and cell cultures and a few studies involving human test subjects have shown that TB-500 may offer the following benefits: 

Benefit 1: Heart repair

In a study conducted on mice, blood flow was blocked off to the left ventricle of their hearts.

After injecting Thymosin Beta-4 and following up for 28 days, researchers found that the left ventricle of the mice’s hearts had improved function [4].

Furthermore, there was a preventative effect on ventricular remodeling. This means the heart’s size, structure and function were uncompromised.

One little-known clinical trial published in 2015 examined patients with ischemic heart failure who received stem cell therapy.

In all of the patients who had an improvement in symptoms, their Thymosin Beta-4 plasma levels were elevated [5]. This could potentially open the door for using Thymosin Beta-4 to treat cardiovascular problems.

Benefit 2: Tissue regeneration

A Phase I clinical trial performed in 28 healthy volunteers who received a topical solution of Thymosin Beta-4 revealed the following results [6]:

“The study showed that Tb4 is well tolerated and exhibits no signs of toxicity at any given dose.

Based on these results and that of several nonclinical toxicology and dermal-sensitization studies, it was concluded that the clinical introduction of Tb4 is supported in patients with chronic cutaneous wounds.”

A study involving rats who had wounds in the palatal mucosa (a membrane that lines cavities found throughout the body) found that the wound healing was attributable to cell migration and angiogenesis (i.e. the formation of new blood vessels) [7].

Benefit 3: Treating dry eye disorders

In a meta-analysis examining the potential therapeutic benefit of Thymosin Beta-4 to treat dry eye disorders, three Phase II clinical trials were reviewed.

In all of them, Thymosin Beta-4 showed great promise in healing eye wounds – reducing symptoms and wound size – without any adverse events.

The researchers also noted how separate clinical trials done in patients with pressure and stasis ulcers did not show any adverse events either [8].

Benefit 4: Re-organizes connective tissue

Thymosin Beta-4 has shown great therapeutic potential for re-organizing damaged connective tissue in rats to help promote flexibility and freedom of physical movement.

One rat study where incisional wounds were performed on the rats found that Thymosin Beta-4 offered the following benefits [9]:

  • Wounds healed with minimal scarring
  • Wounds healed faster
  • Connective tissues re-organized back into their pre-injured formation

Benefit 5: Anti-inflammatory

In mice who had an alcohol-induced liver injury, Thymosin Beta-4 demonstrated anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties in healing the injury [10].

This result has led scientists to hypothesize that Thymosin Beta-4 may be useful in treating non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, in which the liver is heavily inflamed [11].

While the findings of these studies are noteworthy, TB-500 research is still in its infancy. There are numerous areas where a paucity of data exists and further study is warranted. 

So, what is known about TB-500 side effects? 

Let’s dive in. 

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TB-500 Side Effects | What Researchers MUST Know

Researchers interested in exploring TB-500 side effects should note that to date, Thymosin Beta 4 use has not been extensively studied in humans.

As such, the available information about TB-500 side effects is sparse at best. Here are the side effects observed during the Phase I trial cited above [6]:

  • Head rush immediately following injection (but subsides within a few minutes)
  • Extreme fatigue/lethargy
  • Possible headache/nausea

These side effects are entirely separate from skin irritation, which is a common side effect of regularly injecting peptides in general. Of course, all of the above assumes that researchers are correctly preparing and administering TB-500 according to the relevant literature [12].

While there is no published data to indicate what a safe or moderate dosing schedule of TB-500 would be, past research has involved doses of 2-4 mg of TB-500 administered twice a week [6]. This short duration of past studies limits researchers’ understanding of side effects considerably and indicates that long-term research may be warranted.  

But while clinical studies to date have not reported any toxic or serious side effects, and TB-500 appears to be well-tolerated in humans, this does not definitively rule out the possibility of TB-500 side effects.


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TB-500 and Cancer

It is presently unknown if there is a definitive link between TB-500 and cancer.

The main premise is that higher levels of Thymosin Beta-4 are associated with the progression of cancer cells [13].

However, this does not prove that Thymosin Beta-4 is directly causing cancer. In fact, one research paper found that Thymosin Beta-4 helps to suppress tumors in mice with multiple myeloma [14].

Furthermore, that same paper revealed a poor prognosis in patients where Thymosin Beta-4 expression was reduced.

Another paper examining relevant cell cultures in non-small cell lung cancer discovered that Thymosin Beta-4 helped suppress the growth and invasion of cancer cells [15].

So what reasonable conclusion can be drawn from this?

It appears that Thymosin Beta-4 levels are higher in cancer patients than in healthy individuals because it is actively promoting the formation of new white blood cells. This means that Thymosin Beta-4 levels are being elevated in response to cancer so the body’s immune system is better equipped to fight cancer.

However, all of this does not mean Thymosin Beta-4 is a proven anti-cancer agent.

While it shows therapeutic promise, there are few studies done on this topic and the results to this day are in conflict with one another.


Where to Buy Thymosin Beta-4 Online? | 2022 Guide

When researchers buy a peptide from any reputable online company, they will find a disclaimer that goes something like this:

“THIS PRODUCT IS INTENDED AS A RESEARCH CHEMICAL ONLY.

This designation allows the use of research chemicals strictly for in vitro testing and laboratory experimentation only. All product information available on this website is for educational purposes only.

Bodily introduction of any kind into humans or animals is strictly forbidden by law. This product should only be handled by licensed, qualified professionals.

This product is not a drug, food or cosmetic and may not be misbranded, misused or mislabeled as a drug, food or cosmetic.”

To assist researchers, our team has investigated virtually every peptide company in existence and placed small test orders to verify their services. The only vendor we recommend is Peptide Sciences

Here are some of the things they do extremely well:

  • They guarantee 99% purity across all of their peptide products, which means researchers don’t have to worry about impurities or contamination. This is done through the use of extremely strict quality control standards and rigorous testing at all stages of production.
  • They use High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry to ensure the accurate identification of each peptide.
  • They do not use any fillers or binding agents, so researchers can be assured of getting the purest possible peptides when they place an order. 

We highly recommend Peptide Sciences as the only legitimate place for purchasing research peptides.

P.S: All peptides created and sold by Peptide Sciences are 100% TFA-free! Trifluoroacetic acid is found in many of the peptides from low quality vendors who import from China. While not getting too deep into the science here, TFA can be exceptionally dangerous.
 

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Side Effects of TB-500? | Verdict

When it comes to TB-500 side effects, researchers should know that there have been very few human studies involving this research chemical. Of those conducted to date, TB-500 appears to be well tolerated and has not been linked to any serious adverse events. However, the limited data available suggests that further research, especially long-term research, is necessary to gain a fuller understanding of TB-500 side effects. 

Researchers interested in exploring TB-500 side effects may consider contacting Peptide Sciences for more information.


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References

  1. Goldstein AL, Hannappel E, Sosne G, et al. Thymosin β4: a multi-functional regenerative peptide. Basic properties and clinical applications. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2012;12(1):37-51. doi: 10.1517/14712598.2012.634793
  2. Crockford D, Turjman N, Allan C, et al. Thymosin beta4: structure, function, and biological properties supporting current and future clinical applications. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2010;1194:179-89. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2010.05492.x.
  3. Jones facing Thymosin Beta 4 charges. Retrieved February 25, 2020. racing.com
  4. Stark C, Helenius M, Taimen P, et al. Thymosin beta 4 treatment improves left ventricular function after myocardial infarction and is related to Up-regulation of chitinase 3-like-1 in mice. Transl Med Commun. 2016;1(8). doi:10.1186/s41231-016-0008-y
  5. Choudry FA, Yeo C, Mozid A, et al. Increases in plasma Tβ4 after intracardiac cell therapy in chronic ischemic heart failure is associated with symptomatic improvement. Regen Med. 2015;10(4):403-410. doi:10.2217/rme.15.9.
  6. Goldstein AL, Hannappel E, Kleinman HK. Thymosin beta4: actin-sequestering protein moonlights to repair injured tissues. Trends Mol Med. 2005;11(9):421-9.
  7. Zhu T, Park HC, Son KM, et al. Effects of thymosin β4 on wound healing of rat palatal mucosa. Int J Mol Med. 2014;34(3):816-21. doi:10.3892/ijmm.2014.1832
  8. Sosne G, Kleinman HK. Primary Mechanisms of Thymosin β4 Repair Activity in Dry Eye Disorders and Other Tissue Injuries. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2015;56(9):5110-7. doi:10.1167/iovs.15-16890.
  9. Ehrlich HP, Hazard SW 3rd. Thymosin beta4 enhances repair by organizing connective tissue and preventing the appearance of myofibroblasts. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2010;1194:118-24. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2010.05483.x
  10. Shah R, Reyes-Gordillo K, Cheng Y, et al. Thymosin β4 Prevents Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Fibrosis in Ethanol- and LPS-Induced Liver Injury in Mice. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2018;2018:9630175. doi:10.1155/2018/9630175
  11. Jiang Y, Han T, Zhang ZG, et al. Potential role of thymosin beta 4 in the treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Chronic Dis Transl Med. 2017;3(3):165–168. doi:10.1016/j.cdtm.2017.06.003
  12. Peptide Mixing and Dosing Calculator. Retrieved February 25, 2020. 112.196.20.91/realpeptide
  13. Wang WS, Chen PM, Hsiao HL, et al. Overexpression of the thymosin beta-4 gene is associated with malignant progression of SW480 colon cancer cells. Oncogene. 2003;22(21):3297-306.
  14. Caers J, Hose D, Kuipers I, et al. Thymosin β4 has tumor suppressive effects and its decreased expression results in poor prognosis and decreased survival in multiple myeloma. Haematologica. 2010;95(1):163–167. doi:10.3324/haematol.2009.006411
  15. Huang D, Wang S, Wang A, et al. Thymosin beta 4 silencing suppresses proliferation and invasion of non-small cell lung cancer cells by repressing Notch1 activation. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2016;48(9):788-94. doi:10.1093/abbs/gmw070

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