Titus Thorne

Last Updated March 12, 2023

Titus Thorne

 March 12, 2023

Curious about how to take PT-141?

Inside, researchers will find everything they must know about how to properly administer this sexual function peptide.

PT-141 (bremelanotide) is a synthetic melanocortin agonist that works to improve sexual function in both men and women.

It is approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration to treat low libido in premenopausal women, and it has also been used to effectively treat male erectile dysfunction in research settings.

PT-141 is commonly administered as a subcutaneous injection, but researchers have also used PT-141 nasal spray preparations to safely and effectively stimulate sexual arousal in human subjects.

Given these two forms of administering the peptide, many researchers have questions surrounding the topic of how to take PT-141.

In this informative guide, we break down this exciting peptide and include our top recommendations on where to buy research-grade PT-141, whether as a nasal spray or in injectable form.

Buy PT-141 Nasal Spray from our #1 recommended vendor...

Disclaimer: Peptides.org contains information about products that are intended for laboratory and research use only, unless otherwise explicitly stated. This information, including any referenced scientific or clinical research, is made available for educational purposes only. Peptides.org makes every effort to ensure that any information it shares complies with national and international standards for clinical trial information and is committed to the timely disclosure of the design and results of all interventional clinical studies for innovative treatments publicly available or that may be made available. However, research is not considered conclusive. Peptides.org makes no claims that any products referenced can cure, treat or prevent any conditions, including any conditions referenced on its website or in print materials.

What is PT-141?

PT-141 is a cyclic hepta-peptide lactam analog of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH), with high affinity at melanocortin receptors 3 and 4 (MC3-R and MC4-R). When stimulated, these receptors provide motivation for sexual arousal and pair bonding, and are known to induce penile erection [1, 2].

In the area of men’s sexual health, there are important differences between PT-141 and the mainstay drugs used to treat erectile dysfunction. While medications like Viagra and Cialis are vasodilators that work to stimulate blood flow to the penis, they are ineffective in the absence of arousal. By contrast, PT-141 specifically ignites the neuronal connections responsible for arousal in men, via its targeting of MC3-R and MC4-R [2].

PT-141 was developed by Palatin Technologies, which subsequently licensed the rights to developing and commercializing the peptide in North America to AMAG Pharmaceuticals [3].

While PT-141 is normally administered as an injection in clinical and research contexts, online peptide vendors now also offer the peptide in nasal spray form.

How to take PT-141

What is PT-141 Used For?

PT-141 has been the subject of extensive clinical research prior to gaining FDA approval as a treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) in premenopausal women. To that end, it is available by prescription under the trade name Vyleesi, a prefilled autoinjector pen that is designed for self-administration by the patient [3, 4, 5].

In addition, researchers have taken an interest in PT-141’s potential as a treatment of erectile dysfunction and low libido in male subjects. Early studies have specifically explored the ability of PT-141 to increase sexual arousal and erectile response in male subjects with ED who reported an inadequate response to Viagra [2, 6, 7, 8].

As clinical research into the potential role of PT-141 in male sexual health is still pending, it is important to note that any PT-141 available online should be purchased and handled strictly by qualified professionals.

Benefits of PT-141

There is extensive research on PT-141 to support the FDA’s approval of the peptide as a treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) in premenopausal women.

In addition there have been several studies undertaken to support the safety and effectiveness of PT-141 in male test subjects, namely those afflicted with erectile dysfunction.

Here is a summary of research-backed benefits of PT-141 administration.

PT-141 and Erectile Dysfunction

PT-141 was identified as a potential treatment of male erectile dysfunction (ED) in the early 2000s, based on positive findings in relation to its erectogenic effect and tolerability in both healthy male subjects and in Viagra-responsive ED patients [6].

In a similarly-designed study, the same group of researchers investigated whether PT-141 could induce an erectile response in ED patients who did not respond to the PDE5 inhibitor Viagra. The researchers also administered the peptide to healthy males, with both patient groups achieving statistically significant erectile responses. The peptide was effective in the ED patients from a dose of 4mg, while the healthy males reported erections from a dose of 1mg. The authors characterized PT-141 as a potential ED treatment that could serve a broad group of patients [7].

In a 2006 study out of Iran, researchers also tested PT-141 on ED patients on Viagra non-responders. This time, the patients self-administered a PT-141 nasal spray at doses of 10mg each, reporting “significantly greater intercourse satisfaction” compared to the placebo group [8].

PT-141 and Female Libido

Researchers estimate that hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) affects about 10% of women in the United States. HSDD is associated with hormone and neurotransmitter level imbalances in the brain, leading to a lack of sexual desire in the women afflicted [1].

Prior to the approval of PT-141 as a treatment of HSDD in the United States, researchers conducted a series of randomized controlled trials to test the safety and effectiveness of the peptide in rectifying low sexual desire in women. In a 12-week trial involving over 1,000 women with HSDD, the patients were directed to inject PT-141 at a dose of 1.75mg. The PT-141 group showed a statistically significant increase in sexual desire and significant increases on markers of female sexual function and female sexual distress, compared to placebo [9].

PT-141 and Mood

As explained above, PT-141 acts directly upon the nervous system to induce sexual desire, arousal, and satisfaction.

Researchers have long held that melanocortin peptides—PT-141 included—regulate the activity of dopaminergic neurons by activating presynaptic MC4Rs in the medial preoptic area of the hypothalamus. Experts believe that the ability of PT-141 to enhance dopaminergic function in test subjects can yield benefits in overall mood and wellbeing, including enhanced bias towards optimism [1, 10, 11].

PT-141 and Weight loss

Apart from its clear impact on sexual desire, the melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) is key to regulating appetite and may accordingly yield weight loss in research subjects.

Recent data from two clinical trials involving obese female subjects indicates the therapeutic potential of PT-141 in weight loss contexts. In said trials, the researchers noted a decreased caloric intake and a significant reduction in the body weight of the subjects receiving PT-141 [12].

How to take PT-141

PT-141 Side Effects

Clinical trials and human studies have demonstrated that PT-141 is safe and well tolerated in female patients with hypoactive sexual desire disorder, as well as in males with erectile dysfunction [3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 13].

Based on data from phase 2 and 3 trials of PT-141 prior to its regulatory approval, the most commonly reported side effects of the peptide are minor and transient [4, 14]:

  • Facial flushing
  • Nausea
  • Swelling
  • General discomfort
  • Headaches

Notably, there are no restrictions on alcohol consumption when taking PT-141. However, experts warn against the use of PT-141 in subjects with known heart disease or uncontrolled hypertension [4, 15].

In some cases, PT-141 can cause elevated liver enzymes and in rare cases has been linked to acute liver injury [16].

Based on research involving PT-141 nasal sprays, there are no noteworthy risks of intranasally administering the peptide in lieu of subcutaneous injection [6, 8].

In the study by Diamond et al, PT-141 was well-tolerated by both healthy men and ED patients who received doses of >7mg by nasal spray. The authors of that study did not note any clinically significant changes in the patients’ vital signs or laboratory tests [6].

How to Take PT-141?

PT-141 is most commonly administered by subcutaneous injection:

  • In the United States, female patients with HSDD are typically directed by their doctors to purchase Vyleesi, a prefilled autoinjector pen that is designed to be self-administered into the abdomen or thigh prior to sexual activity [5, 15].
  • However, injectable PT-141 for research purposes usually comes in the form of lyophilized powder that must be reconstituted before being injected. Researchers must then properly store any leftover solution.
  • To properly reconstitute and administer injectable PT-141, the researcher must need to have bacteriostatic water, sterile syringes, and ancillary supplies on hand.

Researchers may also prefer the benefits of a PT-141 nasal spray:

  • PT-141 nasal spray is simple to administer and store, and likely will not require reconstitution or refrigeration.
  • This form of administration will not result in injection-related side effects like irritation or redness at the injection site.
  • Based on the research, a nasal spray has a similar time of onset compared to subcutaneous injection. For example, researchers who have directed ED patients to self-administer a PT-141 nasal spray have reported erections in as little as 30 minutes [6, 8].
  • Some PT-141 nasal sprays on the market contain oxytocin, a hormone that regulates feelings of sexual arousal, trust, and romantic attachment, and is linked to enhanced sexual activity [17].

Notably, researchers have co-administered low doses of intranasal PT-141 and Viagra to ED patients to great effect, resulting in an enhanced erectile response and noting that the co-administration was safe and well-tolerated [18].

How to take PT-141

PT-141 Dosage

In the treatment of female patients with HSDD, the manufacturer of Vyleesi advises that a PT-141 dosage not exceed 1.75mg [15].

However, there are no firm dosing guidelines for administering PT-141 injections to male subjects with erectile dysfunction, since PT-141 is not indicated for this use.

Experts recommend administering a low initial dose of 1mg to evaluate the test subject’s reaction to potential side effects.

Thereafter, researchers may refer to the following sample PT-141 dosing protocol for male test subjects:

  • PT-141 Dosage: Administer 2mg subcutaneously in the abdomen or thigh of the test subject, approximately 45 minutes prior to sexual activity.
  • Frequency: Once within 24 hours, not to exceed 8 times per month.
  • Notes: One 10mg vial of PT-141 should yield approximately five doses according to this protocol.

PT-141 nasal spray formulas vary significantly based on the PT-141 content and inclusion of other ingredients, affecting the dosing schedule. If you opt to purchase a commercial nasal spray product, refer to the manufacturer’s guidelines for dosing information.

Where to Buy PT-141 Online | 2023 Guide

Qualified researchers and laboratory professionals may legally purchase PT-141 online for in vitro testing and laboratory experimentation.

While a number of peptide vendors offer PT-141 for sale online, few adhere to rigorous quality control standards while offering their peptides at competitive prices.

Our review team at Peptides.org has surveyed over a dozen vendors, ending up with two clear favorites:

Both vendors ship high-quality peptides and stand out for the following reasons:

  • USA-Made Peptides: Both vendors proudly sell peptides made in the USA, partnering with accredited US-based manufacturers to ensure the highest production standards.
  • Third-Party Testing: The PT-141 products sold by both Peptide Sciences and Pure Rawz are third-party lab tested for quality and purity. This lets customers safely conduct their research without having to worry about contaminated or low-purity products.
  • Fair Prices: Peptide Sciences offers >99% purity injectable PT-141 at $49.50 per 10mg vial, with discounts available for bulk purchases. Pure Rawz currently offers their best-selling oxytocin-infused PT-141 spray for $114.
  • Payment Methods: Both vendors accept a variety of payment methods, including Zelle, Venmo, e-check, and cryptocurrencies.
  • Customer Care: Both Peptide Sciences and Pure Rawz staff professional customer care representatives to handle any customer questions or concerns.

Do not hesitate to source your PT-141 from either of these trusted vendors.

Buy PT-141 Nasal Spray from our #1 recommended vendor...

How to Take PT-141 | Verdict

PT-141 is an approved medication for the treatment of low libido in premenopausal women, and
exhibits great therapeutic potential in the field of men’s sexual health.

It is backed by extensive clinical research that demonstrates its safety and effectiveness in addressing sexual disorders and thus improving the lives of both men and women.

While PT-141 is typically administered by subcutaneous injection, it works equally well when delivered in the form of a nasal spray. Both forms of administration can produce effects in about 30-45 minutes.

To buy a PT-141 nasal spray that is infused with oxytocin, check out PureRawz. To source research-grade PT-141 in injectable form, trust Peptide Sciences.


  1.  Pfaus JG, Sadiq A, Spana C, Clayton AH. The neurobiology of bremelanotide for the treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder in premenopausal women. CNS Spectr. 2022 Jun;27(3):281-289. doi: 10.1017/S109285292100002X. Epub 2021 Jan 18. PMID: 33455598.
  2. Wessells H, Blevins JE, Vanderah TW. Melanocortinergic control of penile erection. Peptides. 2005 Oct;26(10):1972-7. doi: 10.1016/j.peptides.2004.11.035. PMID: 15992962; PMCID: PMC4768007.
  3. Dhillon S, Keam SJ. Bremelanotide: First Approval. Drugs. 2019 Sep;79(14):1599-1606. doi: 10.1007/s40265-019-01187-w. PMID: 31429064.
  4. Mayer D, Lynch SE. Bremelanotide: New Drug Approved for Treating Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder. Ann Pharmacother. 2020 Jul;54(7):684-690. doi: 10.1177/1060028019899152. Epub 2020 Jan 1. PMID: 31893927.
  5. Bremelanotide (Vyleesi) for hypoactive sexual desire disorder. Med Lett Drugs Ther. 2019 Jul 29;61(1577):114-116. PMID: 31381550.
  6. Diamond, L., Earle, D., Rosen, R. et al. Double-blind, placebo-controlled evaluation of the safety, pharmacokinetic properties and pharmacodynamic effects of intranasal PT-141, a melanocortin receptor agonist, in healthy males and patients with mild-to-moderate erectile dysfunction. Int J Impot Res 16, 51–59 (2004). https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ijir.3901139
  7. Rosen RC, Diamond LE, Earle DC, Shadiack AM, Molinoff PB. Evaluation of the safety, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic effects of subcutaneously administered PT-141, a melanocortin receptor agonist, in healthy male subjects and in patients with an inadequate response to Viagra. Int J Impot Res. 2004 Apr;16(2):135-42. doi: 10.1038/sj.ijir.3901200. PMID: 14999221.
  8. Safarinejad MR, Hosseini SY. Salvage of sildenafil failures with bremelanotide: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study. J Urol. 2008 Mar;179(3):1066-71. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2007.10.063. Epub 2008 Jan 18. PMID: 18206919.
  9. Kingsberg SA, Clayton AH, Portman D, Williams LA, Krop J, Jordan R, Lucas J, Simon JA. Bremelanotide for the Treatment of Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder: Two Randomized Phase 3 Trials. Obstet Gynecol. 2019 Nov;134(5):899-908. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000003500. PMID: 31599840; PMCID: PMC6819021.
  10. Lindblom J, Kask A, Hägg E, Härmark L, Bergström L, Wikberg J. Chronic infusion of a melanocortin receptor agonist modulates dopamine receptor binding in the rat brain. Pharmacol Res. 2002 Feb;45(2):119-24. doi: 10.1006/phrs.2001.0913. PMID: 11846623.
  11. Sharot, T., Guitart-Masip, M., Korn, C. W., Chowdhury, R., & Dolan, R. J. (2012, July 12). How dopamine enhances an optimism bias in humans. Current Biology. Retrieved August 23, 2022, from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960982212006458
  12. Spana C, Jordan R, Fischkoff S. Effect of bremelanotide on body weight of obese women: Data from two phase 1 randomized controlled trials. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2022 Jun;24(6):1084-1093. doi: 10.1111/dom.14672. Epub 2022 Mar 15. PMID: 35170192; PMCID: PMC9314948.
  13. Althof S, Derogatis LR, Greenberg S, Clayton AH, Jordan R, Lucas J, Spana C. Responder Analyses from a Phase 2b Dose-Ranging Study of Bremelanotide. J Sex Med. 2019 Aug;16(8):1226-1235. doi: 10.1016/j.jsxm.2019.05.012. Epub 2019 Jul 2. PMID: 31277966.
  14. Simon JA, Kingsberg SA, Portman D, Williams LA, Krop J, Jordan R, Lucas J, Clayton AH. Long-Term Safety and Efficacy of Bremelanotide for Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder. Obstet Gynecol. 2019 Nov;134(5):909-917. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000003514. PMID: 31599847; PMCID: PMC6819023.
  15. About Vyleesi: Approved bremelanotide injection for HSDD. Vyleesi (bremelanotide injection) 1.75mg/0.3 ml | for subcutaneous use only. Retrieved August 22, 2022, from https://www.vyleesi.com/about-vyleesi/
  16. LiverTox: Clinical and Research Information on Drug-Induced Liver Injury [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; 2012–. Bremelanotide. 2021 Aug 20. PMID: 34436837.
  17. Magon N, Kalra S. The orgasmic history of oxytocin: Love, lust, and labor. Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Sep;15 Suppl 3(Suppl3):S156-61. doi: 10.4103/2230-8210.84851. PMID: 22029018; PMCID: PMC3183515.
  18. Diamond LE, Earle DC, Garcia WD, Spana C. Co-administration of low doses of intranasal PT-141, a melanocortin receptor agonist, and sildenafil to men with erectile dysfunction results in an enhanced erectile response. Urology. 2005 Apr;65(4):755-9. doi: 10.1016/j.urology.2004.10.060. PMID: 15833522.

Table of Contents
    Add a header to begin generating the table of contents