Titus Thorne

Last Updated November 6, 2022

Titus Thorne

 November 6, 2022

Many peptide researchers are curious about the similarities and differences between TB 500 vs. BPC-157 and want to know which may be a better fit for their next experiment.

Both of these peptides are being actively researched for their purported ability to promote healing, but how do they compare to each other? 

This guide will outline the research-based benefits and side effects of both TB 500 and BPC-157 and examine how they have been dosed in past trials. Researchers interested in working with one or both of these peptides will find details of relevant literature and data from studies. 

Details of our preferred peptide vendor can be found at the end of this guide, so let’s begin!

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Disclaimer: Peptides.org contains information about products that are intended for laboratory and research use only, unless otherwise explicitly stated. This information, including any referenced scientific or clinical research, is made available for educational purposes only. Peptides.org makes every effort to ensure that any information it shares complies with national and international standards for clinical trial information and is committed to the timely disclosure of the design and results of all interventional clinical studies for innovative treatments publicly available or that may be made available. However, research is not considered conclusive. Peptides.org makes no claims that any products referenced can cure, treat or prevent any conditions, including any conditions referenced on its website or in print materials.


What are Research Peptides?

For researchers unfamiliar with research peptides, here’s a brief explanation of what they are [1]:

“Peptides are sequences of molecules called amino acids. There are many varieties of amino acids, including 20 naturally occurring building blocks of proteins.

Peptides of precise sequences may occur naturally in the body, but they may also be produced synthetically or using recombinant DNA technology in bacteria and other living systems.

With their highly diverse sequence-dependent shapes and chemical and biological properties, these molecules are used to treat a variety of diseases, and applications for new peptide drug products are increasing”

A “dipeptide” is a sequence of two amino acids, a “tripeptide” is a sequence of three amino acids, and so on.

(In the eyes of the FDA, 40 or fewer amino acids in a sequence is categorized as a peptide).

Peptides are much smaller than proteins, which is why they do not fold into complex three-dimensional structures once they are synthesized by the body.

Not only are peptides far easier and cheaper to synthesize, but their tiny structure allows them to target receptors and biomolecules which are inaccessible to purely synthetic drugs [2].

As of this writing, there are currently 494 peptide products that have been approved by the FDA to treat various diseases, such as [3]:

  • Cancer
  • Genetic disorders
  • Infectious disease
  • Cardiovascular problems
  • Weakened immune system
  • Respiratory disorders
  • Eye disorders
  • Neurodegenerative problems
  • Poor hormonal health
  • Bone disorders

Researchers will note how outcomes such as enhanced fat loss, improved lean muscle gain, and cognition are not featured on this list.

This is because the FDA has not approved any peptides for those specific purposes.

So what are research peptides, then?

Research peptides are peptides that have been investigated in animal studies, cell cultures, and human clinical trials but have not yet met the standards of safety and efficacy necessary to be approved for therapeutic purposes.

These peptides are manufactured by scientific laboratories at the highest purity possible, thereby ensuring there are no impurities or contaminants, but they are not intended for, or approved for, human use. 

Two such research peptides that have gained popularity among researchers in recent years are TB-500 and BPC-157.

Researcher Ben Greenfield has written extensively about both of them, featuring them in his new book Boundless [4]:

“I’ve personally used peptides BPC-157 and TB-500 to enhance healing and recovery.
“…BPC-157 also accelerates wound healing and, via interaction with the nitric oxide system, protects endothelial tissue and builds blood vessels”

“…TB-500 can be injected in or near any damaged muscle site and sore or injured joint with surprising healing effects”

To understand more about these purported benefits, let’s explore the background of each peptide and see what the science has to say about their supposed benefits.


bpc-157-tb-500


What is TB-500?

TB-500 is the synthetic derivative of the naturally occurring Thymosin Beta-4, a peptide consisting of 43 amino acids that is naturally produced in the thymus gland and encoded by the TMSB4X gene.

It is located in every cell of the body except for red blood cells.

Thymosin Beta-4 is naturally produced by the thymus gland when the body is injured, and it is also involved in creating new blood vessels [5].

For these two reasons, TB-500 is considered to be an integral part of the body’s natural healing process for wounds and damaged tissues.

A medical presentation given on immune-modulating peptides compiled some of the benefits derived by Thymosin Beta-4 usage in animals [6]:

  • Repair of soft tissue such as muscle, tendons, and ligaments
  • Improved heart health
  • Effective at treating eye injuries
  • Spinal cord injuries
  • Anti-inflammatory effects
  • Reduces the damage done by concussions and traumatic brain injury

TB-500’s main mechanism of action involves the upregulation of actin, a cellular protein that aids in muscle contraction and keeps the structure of cells intact [7].

But due to the body secreting Thymosin Beta-4 in small amounts, researchers have experimented with TB-500 and examined its potential for treating muscle, joint, tendon, and ligament injuries.

While the number of available human clinical trials is disappointingly low, this has not stopped entities like WADA and USADA from banning the use of TB-500 in competitive sports [8].

So clearly, while TB-500 has no officially recognized therapeutic use, it is effective enough to gain the attention of doping agencies who want to prevent athletes from gaining an unfair advantage.

Let’s take a look at the purported benefits of TB-500 in the next section. 


Benefits of Thymosin Beta-4

Researchers who wish to consult PubMed will see that there are roughly 860 studies conducted on the benefits of Thymosin Beta-4 since 1981 (as of this writing).

Here are some of the main research findings. 

Thymosin Beta-4 offers anti-inflammatory effects

Chronic inflammation is a root cause of many severe injuries, which is why scientists are working tirelessly to reduce it as a means of speeding up the healing process [9]:

“Many chronic wounds are the result of chronic inflammation.

In contrast to adult wound healing, the early gestation fetus displays a remarkable ability to heal wounds without scarring. Fetal wounds heal rapidly and are characterized by a relative lack of inflammation”

Thymosin Beta-4 has been tested in rats, and has been found to treat several types of inflammatory disorders:

  • Alcohol-induced liver injury [10]
  • Rheumatoid arthritis [11]
  • Several eye diseases, including dry eye [12]

While the mechanism behind this is uncertain, it is clear that Thymosin Beta-4 can simultaneously downregulate pro-inflammatory molecules while upregulating anti-regulating factors [13].

Thymosin Beta-4 may help repair various forms of heart damage

Cardiovascular health is one of the few areas where Thymosin Beta-4 has been deemed safe and effective in humans.

In humans, elevated Thymosin Beta-4 levels are associated with the improvement of symptoms in ischemic heart failure [14].

Another pilot study involving patients who had experienced heart attacks found that using Thymosin Beta-5 for six months led to the repair and regeneration of damaged heart tissue [15].

Thymosin Beta-4 was previously shown to provide this therapeutic benefit in cellular cultures and experimental studies with rats [16, 17].

Thymosin Beta-4 shows potential for healing multiple injuries

Some studies have pointed to the regenerative potential of Thymosin Beta-4.

The majority of these studies are done in rats, with very few clinical trials involving humans. These studies have found that TB-500 can: 

  • Restore biochemical movement to ligament injuries [18]
  • Accelerate healing of ulcers [19]
  • Heal skin wounds without any side effects or observable toxicity [20]
  • Successfully treating burn wounds [21]

As these are mainly animal studies, researchers should remain cautious if they choose to investigate Thymosin Beta-4 for these purposes.

How does BPC-157 stack up in the “TB-500 vs. BPC-157” battle? Let’s take a look at what BPC-157 is. 


bpc-157-tb-500


What is BPC-157?

In this section, we will discuss what BPC-157 is, how it works, and why it is regarded by many researchers to have healing properties.

BPC-157 (the “BPC” stands for “Body Protection Compound”) is a synthetic peptide that’s 15 amino acids long.

It is derived from the biologically active sequence of a peptide that is found in the gut and was first isolated in gastric juices in 1991.

Past research has identified the following therapeutic benefits of BPC-157 [6]:

  • Repairs and maintains optimal gastrointestinal tract function
  • Stabilizes high and low blood pressure
  • Uniformly improves blood circulation by increasing expression of nitric oxide and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)
  • Leads to functional recovery after an MCL tear

BPC-157 has also been observed to demonstrate healing properties in skin wounds, muscle, tendon, ligament, and bone injuries within rat studies [22].

While BPC-157 has not been officially banned by WADA or any doping organizations, there is evidence that it has been used as a doping agent in horse racing. 

But are there any other scientifically-proven benefits of BPC-157 which extend beyond recovery and repair?


Benefits of BPC-157

BPC-157 has shown therapeutic promise in other domains of health.

However, BPC-157 has not been as extensively researched as TB-500, with only 131 papers published on the peptide since 1992.

Here’s what the science has to say about the benefits of using BPC-157:

BPC-157 can counteract the side effects of other medications

Many commonly prescribed medications for certain conditions come with side effects.

Fortunately, BPC-157 could potentially be used alongside these drugs to counteract the side effects while conferring the benefits of said drugs. BPC-157 has been found to:

  • Reduce the stomach lesions induced by taking haloperidol or cyclophosphamide (the former treats schizophrenia, and the latter is a chemotherapy drug) [23]
  • Reduce the severity of neurotoxicity induced by methamphetamine (i.e. meth) [24]
  • Reverse the toxic side effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as seizures and hypotension [25]

BPC-157 may improve gut health

A comprehensive 2017 study by Croatian researchers found multiple studies tying BPC-157 to optimal gut health [26]:

“In clinical trials without side effects, LD1 not achieved…

BPC 157 healing in gastrointestinal tract, and particularly the healing of the extragastrointestinal tissues (i.e., skin/tendon/ligament/muscle/bone; nerve; cornea/ brain) were referred throughout its integrative capabilities (i.e., ulcerative colitis/multiple sclerosis model equally counteracted), native in gastrointestinal tract, stability in human gastric juice (and thereby, strong efficacy and applicability)”

The same authors also made the same observation in a 2012 review, where BPC-157 was able to lower gut inflammation and reduce complications associated with inflammatory bowel disease [27].

BPC-157 may heal injuries and wounds

BPC-157 is on the cusp of being proven as a multi-purpose regenerative peptide.

Here is the research amassed to date in animal studies that prove this:

  • Increased tissue regeneration in skin wounds of diabetic mice [28]
  • Regenerates muscle in cut-up quadriceps muscle [29]
  • Uniformly heals an abnormal absence of bone tissue without excessive growth or deformation of original structure [30]

Now that we have reviewed the purported benefits of both TB-500 and BPC-157, let’s look at how they compare. 

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Best Healing Peptides? | TB-500 vs. BPC-157

Researchers interested in comparing TB-500 vs. BPC-157 should note that there are no published studies that have examined this combination. 

However, there are two clinical cases that have demonstrated the healing effects of these two peptides. These cases were conducted by Dr. Cleaver, who wrote about his experiences with using BPC-157 and TB-500 in combination to treat his 86-year-old father, who had end-stage kidney failure [31]:

“Dr. Cleaver’s father was able to return home in August 2019 [treatment started on June 10, 2019]. His grip strength, gait and general strength were the best he has been in years. He returned to wood working (building furniture). He lifts weights and uses an exercise bike every day. His chronic lower back pain has mostly disappeared”“Dr. Cleaver’s father was able to return home in August 2019 [treatment started on June 10, 2019]. His grip strength, gait and general strength were the best he has been in years. He returned to wood working (building furniture). He lifts weights and uses an exercise bike every day. His chronic lower back pain has mostly disappeared”

This same doctor used the dual combination of research peptides to treat a 51-year-old man whose heart function had significantly deteriorated and needed a transplant:

“Within only three weeks this patient’s shortness of breath disappeared. His ejection fraction, a measure of left heart chamber contraction normalized. He felt energy and no longer needed two pillows to sleep. Due to his improvement his doctor took him off the heart transplant list.”

But all of this is getting in the way of the main question…

What are the similarities and differences between TB-500 and BPC-157?

The similarities between TB-500 and BPC-157

The main similarities between TB-500 and BPC-157 are as follows: 

  • Both research peptides have demonstrated anti-inflammatory properties
  • Both research peptides promote angiogenesis (i.e. the formation of new blood vessels)

Some researchers contend that TB-500 and BPC-157 increase blood circulation by different mechanisms, but the end result is the same.

The differences between TB-500 and BPC-157

There are some obvious differences between these two research peptides.

TB-500 has a systemic effect, which means it works regardless of where the injection is made.

BPC-157 has a localized effect and must be injected near the site of the injury. 

TB-500 works to distribute actin, whereas BPC-157 is directly responsible for increasing actin production [32].

Keep in mind that the only way to definitively prove the difference between TB-500 and BPC-157 would be to conduct a large-scale clinical trial in which the same type of injury is being treated.

While this type of research has yet to be conducted, it is clear that BPC-157 and TB-500 do not counteract one another.

If anything, anecdotal evidence shows that they work synergistically to speed up the healing process and further accelerate the rate of recovery.


bpc-157-tb-500


Peptides For Healing | Recommended Dosing/Cycle

When it comes to TB-500 vs. BPC-157, researchers should know that these research peptides have no safe or recommended dosage. 

However, our review of past studies indicates that researchers have dosed them accordingly in the past: 

  • BPC-157: 250 mcg injected intramuscularly, once in the morning on an empty stomach and once again right before bed.
  • TB-500: 2-4 mg injected intramuscularly, twice a week in evenly spaced doses (ex. Monday and Thursday).

Most studies have run to 4-8 weeks, but there is no long-term data to show what effects these peptides may have when administered continuously. 

Researchers interested in experimenting with either of these peptides are advised to consult the relevant literature and consult a reputable dosage calculator [33].


How to Order Research Peptides Online

Researchers intent on working with TB-500 or BPC-157 should order them from a legitimate vendor with a stellar reputation from third-party reviews and ruthless dedication to product quality.

Researcher’s payment information should always be safe and shipments should be protected from customs seizures with a money-back guarantee.

To date, our team has identified only one vendor that satisfies all of the above and does so much more.

Researchers wishing to buy BPC-157 online, buy TB-500 alone, or get a good blend of TB-500 and BPC-157, should look no further than Peptide Sciences.

On top of being the #1 place to legally buy research peptides online, there are several reasons why Peptide Sciences tops our list:

  • Unbeatable Customer Service: The speed and professionalism of their customer support desk is unparalleled. All questions and concerns will be immediately answered.
  • More Than One Way To Pay: Cryptocurrency, credit card, electronic cheque, third-party apps like Venmo and Apple Pay…Peptide Sciences can facilitate them all.
  • The Highest-Quality Peptides: Every peptide is 100% USA-made and exceeds 99% purity. Numerous high-performance tests are done to verify the accuracy and potency of each research peptide. Peptide Sciences meets brutally strict quality control standards, as their products are used in animal studies and clinical trials.
  • Shipping Prices Are Very Fair: Peptide Sciences charges a flat $15 fee for shipping but waives this on orders over $100. Bulk discounts are also available to researchers who place large orders.
  • Fast And Secure Delivery: Shipping takes place 24 hours after the order is made. Researchers in the US can expect a 2-3 day wait, while international researchers will wait 7-10 days on average. 
  • TFA-Free: All peptides created and sold by Peptide Sciences are 100% TFA-free! Trifluoroacetic acid is found in many of the peptides from low-quality vendors who import from China. While not getting too deep into the science here, TFA can be exceptionally dangerous.

Combined with solid prices for their products and several informational articles, Peptide Sciences is most researchers’ go-to stop for all of their peptide needs.

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Side Effects and Safety Concerns?

Are there any side effects of TB-500 that researchers should know about? Any dangerous BPC-157 side effects reported by research subjects?

Here’s the good news: There have yet to be any reported side effects or toxic events in any of the studies conducted on TB-500 or BPC-157.

So researchers wishing to pit BPC-157 vs. TB-500 to see which one is more dangerous can put their worries to rest.

The only documented side effects are nausea, headaches, dizziness, and slight redness/pain at the site of injection, assuming that the proper dosage for each research peptide is used.

And as for the cancer scare? It is unproven with TB-500 or BPC-157.

For every study purporting a link between either peptide and the progression of cancer cells, there are 1-2 studies that claim the exact opposite.

TB-500 and BPC-157 are not proven carcinogens, nor are they proven anti-cancer agents.

However, much more research will need to be done on this topic before any final conclusions can be reached.


bpc-157-tb-500


Bacteriostatic Water for Injection

Researchers must not overlook the importance of supplementary supplies when handling peptides such as TB-500. To correctly prepare, inject, and store peptides, a standard set of supplies must be used.

Items such as bacteriostatic water, sterile vials, and alcohol swabs should be available.

If you are unsure of where to source these products, you are in luck! The Peptides.org team has combed the web to find the top supplier of research materials to meet your needs.

BacteriostaticWater.org

This online vendor stands out with its quality offerings of complete supply kits tailored to researchers like you. Choose from two convenient sets featured on the BacteriostaticWater.org site to avoid the hassle of shopping from multiple sources for all your lab supplies.

Get set up with the starter research kit, replete with:

  • Bacteriostatic Water (30mL) – 3x
  • Insulin Syringes (0.5 cc/mL x 29g x ½) – 100x
  • Alcohol Prep Pads – 200x
  • Sterile Empty Glass Vial (10mL) – 1x
  • Large Needles + Syringes Combo (3cc x 21g x 1) – 10x

Receive even more items with the premium research kit, containing:

  • Bacteriostatic Water (30mL) – 5x
  • Insulin Syringes (0.5 cc/mL x 29g x ½) – 200x
  • Alcohol Prep Pads – 200x
  • Sterile Empty Glass Vial (10mL) – 2x
  • Large Needles + Syringes Combo (3cc x 21g x 1) – 20x

You will not regret ordering a supply set from this trusted retailer, our first choice for research materials.

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BPC-157 vs. TB-500 | Verdict

TB-500 vs. BPC-157?

Both of these research peptides are winners when it comes to their research potential.

The differences between TB-500 and BPC-157 are almost meaningless, to the point where they are insignificant.

Researchers may consider investigating either one on its own, or combining them both to study how they interact. 

While any benefits discussed in relation to TB-500 and BPC-157 are entirely speculative, as there is an insufficient amount of studies done in human subjects, both peptides show great potential. 

Researchers interested in exploring TB-500 or BPC-157 may consider contacting Research Peptides for more information. 

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References

  1. Impact Story: Developing the Tools to Evaluate Complex Drug Products: Peptides. Retrieved March 28, 2020. fda.gov
  2. Peptides Emerging As A Reliable Source of Therapeutic Agents. Retrieved March 29, 2020. marketwatch.com
  3. THPdb: A database of FDA approved therapeutic peptides and proteins. Retrieved March 27, 2020. webs.iiitd.edu.in
  4. Greenfield, Ben. (2020). Boundless: Upgrade Your Brain, Optimized Your Body & Defy Aging. Page 525.
  5. Nemolato S, Van Eyken P, Cabras T, et al. Expression pattern of thymosin beta 4 in the adult human liver. Eur J Histochem. 2011;55(3):e25. doi:10.4081/ejh.2011.e25
  6. Immune Modulating Peptides. Retrieved March 30, 2020. nevadaosteopathic.org.
  7. Chopp M, Zhang ZG. Thymosin β4 as a restorative/regenerative therapy for neurological injury and neurodegenerative diseases. Expert Opinion Biol Ther. 201 5;15 Suppl 1:S9-12. doi: 10.1517/14712598.201 5.1005596
  8. Essendon supplements scandal: TB4 was always banned, says ASADA. Retrieved February 27, 2020. theage.com.au
  9. Rosique RG, Rosique MJ, Farina Junior JA. Curbing Inflammation in Skin Wound Healing: A Review. Int J Inflam. 2015;2015:316235. doi:10.1155/2015/316235
  10. Shah R, Reyes-Gordillo K, Cheng Y, et al. Thymosin β4 Prevents Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Fibrosis in Ethanol- and LPS-Induced Liver Injury in Mice. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2018;2018:9630175. doi:10.1155/2018/9630175
  11. Kim KS, Yang HI. Thymosin β4 in rheumatoid arthritis: Friend or foe. Biomed Rep. 2017;7(3):205–208. doi:10.3892/br.2017.952
  12. Sosne G, Qiu P, Christopherson PL, Wheater MK. Thymosin beta 4 suppression of corneal NFkappaB: a potential anti-inflammatory pathway. Exp Eye Res. 2007;84(4):663–669. doi:10.1016/j.exer.2006 .12.004
  13. Wang YY, Zhu QS, Wang YW, Yin RF. Thymosin Beta-4 Recombinant Adeno-associated Virus Enhances Human Nucleus Pulposus Cell Proliferation and Reduces Cell Apoptosis and Senescence. Chin Med J (Engl). 2015;128(11):1529–1535. doi:10.4103/0366-6999.157686
  14. Choudry FA, Yeo C, Mozid A, et al. Increases in plasma Tβ4 after intracardiac cell therapy in chronic ischemic heart failure is associated with symptomatic improvement. Regen Med. 2015;10(4):403-410. doi:10.2217/rme.15.9.
  15. Thymosin Beta 4 Effective in Treatment of Heart Attack Patients. Retrieved February 7, 2020. regenerx.com
  16. Bjørklund G, Dadar M, Aaseth J, Chirumbolo S. Thymosin β4: a multi-faceted tissue repair stimulating protein in heart injury. Curr Med Chem. 2019 Jul 16. doi: 10.2174/092986732666 6190716125456.
  17. Shrivastava S, Srivastava D, Olson EN, et al. Thymosin beta4 and cardiac repair. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2010;1194:87-96. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2010.05468.x.
  18. Xu B, Yang M, Li Z, et al. Thymosin β4 enhances the healing of medial collateral ligament injury in rat. Regul Pept. 2013;184:1-5. doi:10.1016/j.regpep.201 3.03.026
  19. Treadwell T, Kleinman HK, Crockford D. The regenerative peptide thymosin β4 accelerates the rate of dermal healing in preclinical animal models and in patients. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2012;1270:37-44. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2012.06717.x.
  20. Goldstein AL, Hannappel E, Kleinman HK. Thymosin beta4: actin-sequestering protein moonlights to repair injured tissues. Trends Mol Med. 2005;11(9):421-9.
  21. Kim S, Kwon J. Thymosin beta 4 improves dermal burn wound healing via downregulation of receptor of advanced glycation end products in db/db mice. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014;1840(12):3452-9. doi: 10.1016/j.bbagen.2014 .09.013
  22. Sikiric P, Hahm KB, Blagaic AB, Tvrdeic A, Pavlov KH, et al. Stable Gastric Pentadecapeptide BPC 157, Robert's Stomach Cytoprotection/Adaptive Cytoprotection/Organopr otection, and Selye's Stress Coping Response: Progress, Achievements, and the Future. Gut liver. 2020;14(2):153-167. doi: 10.5009/gnl18490.
  23. BPC-157. Retrieved February 28, 2020. examine.com
  24. Suran J, Kolenc D, Crnic AP, Radic B, Drmic I, et al. The effect of pentadecapeptide BPC 157 in metamphetamine-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity (1143.11). FASEB J. 2014;28:Suppl1.
  25. Sikiric P, Seiwerth S, Rucman R, Turkovic B, Rokotov DS, et al. Toxicity by NSAIDs. Counteraction by stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157. Curr Pharm Des. 2013;19(1):76-83.
  26. Sikiric P, Seiwerth S, Rucman R, Drmic D, Stupnisek M, et al. Stress in Gastrointestinal Tract and Stable Gastric Pentadecapeptide BPC 157. Finally, do we have a Solution? Curr Pharm Des. 2017;23(27):4012-4028. doi:10.2174/138161282 3666170220163219.
  27. Sikiric P, Sikiric PS, Seiwerth S, Rucman R, Turkovic B, et al. Effect of Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 on Gastrointestinal Tract. Front Gastrointest Res. 2010;30:191-201. doi:10.1159/000338435.
  28. Seveljevic-Jaran D, Cuzic S, Dominis-Kramaric M, Glojnaric I, Ivetic V, et al. Accelerated healing of excisional skin wounds by PL 14736 in alloxan-hyperglycemic rats. Skin Pharmacol Physiol. 2006;19(5):266-274.
  29. Staresinic M, Petrovic I, Novinscak T, Jukic I, Pevec D. Effective therapy of transected quadriceps muscle in rat: Gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157. J Orthop Res. 2006;24(5):1109-1117.
  30. Sebecic B, Nikolic V, Sikiric P, Seiwerth S, Sosa T, et al. Osteogenic effect of a gastric pentadecapeptide, BPC-157, on the healing of segmental bone defect in rabbits: a comparison with bone marrow and autologous cortical bone implantation. Bone. 1999;24(3):195-202.
  31. Two Clinical Cases Demonstrating the Healing Effects of Peptides. Retrieved March 30, 2020. askdrray.com
  32. Buy BPC-157, TB-500 10mg (Blend). Retrieved April 1, 2020. peptidesciences.com
  33. Peptide Mixing and Dosing Calculator. Retrieved March 20, 2020. http://112.196.20.91/rea lpeptide/peptide-calculator/

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