Titus Thorne

Last Updated September 26, 2022

Titus Thorne

 September 26, 2022

How does PT-141 affect men? Inside, researchers will find everything they must know about this powerful peptide.

PT-141 is a peptide analog of α-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) and is approved as bremelanotide by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat low sex drive in premenopausal women.

While not yet approved to treat any sexual disorder in men, there is promising research that PT-141 can potentially supplant or complement medications like Viagra and Cialis as a treatment of erectile dysfunction or low libido in males.

Researchers specializing in male sexual disorders may be curious as to how PT-141 works. Is PT-141 safe for men? Can PT-141 affect testosterone levels? What is the best way to take PT-141?

In this guide, we address these questions, in addition to providing our recommendation on where to buy research-grade PT-141.

Disclaimer: Peptides.org contains information about products that are intended for laboratory and research use only, unless otherwise explicitly stated. This information, including any referenced scientific or clinical research, is made available for educational purposes only. Peptides.org makes every effort to ensure that any information it shares complies with national and international standards for clinical trial information and is committed to the timely disclosure of the design and results of all interventional clinical studies for innovative treatments publicly available or that may be made available. However, research is not considered conclusive. Peptides.org makes no claims that any products referenced can cure, treat or prevent any conditions, including any conditions referenced on its website or in print materials.


What is PT-141?

Also known as bremelanotide, PT-141 is a cyclic hepta-peptide lactam analog of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and a derivative of the synthetic melanocortin melanotan 2.

PT-141 works by binding to the melanocortin receptors (MCRs) by emulating some attributes of α-MSH. The peptide has high affinity at MC3R and MC4R, which are associated with food intake, sexual arousal, learning behavior, and pair bonding [1].

Given this mechanism of action, there is a wide body of research supporting the peptide’s ability to induce penile erection and arousal in male subjects [1, 2].

However, PT-141 has only been approved to treat sexual dysfunction in women, and it is available as a prescription medication called Vyleesi to treat hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD). Originally developed by Palatin Technologies, PT-141 is typically self-administered as a subcutaneous injection under the skin of the thigh or abdomen [3, 4].


PT-141 Men


What is PT-141 Used For?

Prior to 2019, the only FDA-approved medication for treating generalized HSDD was flibanserin, an agonist of the serotonin 5-HT1A receptor and an antagonist of 5-HT2A.

An extensive body of research supported the FDA’s decision to approve bremelanotide (PT-141) to treat HSDD in women, including two 24-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials conducted on over 1,200 premenopausal women with acquired and generalized HSDD [5, 6, 7].

Yet there is an equally compelling case that PT-141 may be used to help men with sexual dysfunction. Researchers are now examining the benefits of PT-141 for men as a potential treatment of conditions like erectile dysfunction, an issue that one in five men experience in the United States [8, 9].

It has been shown that PT-141 helps to restore erectile function and alleviate low libido in men, leading to an improvement in their sex lives and therefore improved overall well-being.

Researchers have also demonstrated that the restoration of erectile function can lead to improved mood in patients with depression [10].

PT-141 works differently from currently approved treatments for erectile dysfunction like sildenafil (Viagra) and tadalafil (Cialis), which do not directly trigger erection but instead the response to sexual stimulation. On the other hand, PT-141 mimics the biological process that causes arousal in men, by stimulating MC4R to induce sexual libido.

Three early studies have examined the effect of PT-141 on healthy male subjects, subjects with ED who were responsive to sildenafil (Viagra), and subjects who were non-responsive to Viagra. Across all three studies, PT-141 was able to produce statistically significant results for men in terms of either inducing or restoring erectile function [2, 11, 12].


Benefits of PT-141

PT-141 has been documented to provide notable benefits for men, including addressing erectile dysfunction, improving satisfaction from intercourse, and boosting overall mood.

PT-141 as a potential erectile dysfunction treatment

In a 2004 study, researchers evaluated the effects of PT-141 on male subjects with ED who did not respond adequately to a 100mg dose of Viagra. In this same study, they also administered PT-141 to healthy males—that is, those not experiencing ED.

The authors found that a PT-141 dose of 1mg sufficed to achieve a statistically significant erectile response in the healthy males, while doses of 4mg and 6mg yielded positive outcomes in the ED patients.

The authors of this study also proposed PT-141 as an alternative for treating erectile dysfunction “with a potentially broad patient base” [2].

PT-141 enhances intercourse satisfaction

A 2006 study involving 342 married men with erectile dysfunction sought to observe the effects of intranasally administered bremelanotide. The men had not adequately responded to sildenafil (Viagra) treatment. Around half of the patients were instructed to self-administer a 10mg dose of PT-141 45 minutes to two hours before intercourse, while the others took placebo.

The researchers found that the men in the PT-141 group reported “significantly greater intercourse satisfaction” compared to placebo, also suggesting the peptide as an alternative to Viagra that could be used across a wide range of patients [11].

PT-141 affects mood and well-being

Melanocortin peptides have been shown to increase dopamine levels in the brains of rodents. The dopamine increase is attributed to activation of presynaptic MC4Rs on neurons in the mPOA of the hypothalamus [13]. Researchers believe that the ability of PT-141 to increase dopamine levels can lead to improvements in mood as well as a greater sense of well-being [5, 14].


PT-141 Men


PT-141 Side Effects

PT-141 has been shown to be safe and well-tolerated across a variety of subject groups. While PT-141 side effects have been reported in various studies, none have been characterized as serious or protracted [2, 15].

Notably, in the Vyleesi product information sheet, the manufacturer recommends that the peptide not be administered to subjects with high blood pressure or cardiovascular disease [16].

However, compared to other sexual dysfunction medications like Cialis, PT-141 has not been shown to interact negatively with other substances, such as alcohol [4].

In the literature, researchers have reported the following PT-141 side effects [4, 17]:

  • Swelling
  • General discomfort
  • Facial flushing
  • Nausea
  • Headaches

In a two-year study involving 272 premenopausal women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder, nausea was the most frequently reported side effect of bremelanotide. Other reported side effects were flushing and headache [13].

Mild serum enzyme elevations have also been reported as a PT-141 side effect. In rare cases, clinically apparent acute liver injury has been noted [18].


PT-141 For Men

Data from the National Health and Social Life Survey indicates that nearly one-third of men in the US deal with some form of sexual dysfunction, with one in five experiencing erectile dysfunction [8, 9]. Many researchers believe that even these numbers vastly understate the issues at hand.

Studies have also demonstrated a clear association between depression and erectile dysfunction [19, 20]. But due to social stigma, healthcare professionals may be reluctant to question a male patient in detail about ED, which can lead to many cases remaining undiagnosed and untreated [19].

Depression stemming from ED can cause further distress in the lives of men, such as separation from a partner or spouse.

The most popular medications for treating ED in the United States are the PDE5 inhibitors sildenafil and tadalafil, better known respectively Viagra and Cialis. While these prescription medications have been shown to improve erectile quality in some cases, they have failed to yield favorable results in others.

Further, since these medications act by inducing vasodilation in smooth muscle tissue, which leads to increased blood flow to the penis, the prevalence of side effects related to blood pressure increases. Also, the physiological effects of these medications do not manifest if sexual arousal is absent.

Alternatively, PT-141 has been shown in numerous studies to help restore erectile function and alleviate low libido in men, including in cases where Viagra had failed [2, 11]. It has been demonstrated that restoration of erectile function can lead to improved mood in patients with depression, and furthermore, a greater sense of well-being and sexual satisfaction [20].

Due to its lack of notable side effects and effectiveness, PT-141 has long been proposed as a potentially superior alternative to PDE5 inhibitors like Viagra and Cialis.


PT-141 Men


Where to Buy PT-141 Online | 2022 Guide

Given the amount of research interest in alternatives to Viagra and Cialis, many peptide vendors now sell PT-141 online. However, not all research chemical suppliers are trusted sellers of high-quality peptides—the vast majority do not even perform peptide purity testing.

Aware of these issues, our expert review team at Peptides.org has placed test orders with a variety of vendors, looking at factors like peptide quality, shipping policies, and customer service.

Following our survey, we found that Peptide Sciences is the top source of injectable PT-141 online.

Here is what makes them stand out:

    • Peptide Quality: Peptide Sciences sends each PT-141 batch to an independent lab for quality testing via Mass Spectrometry (MS) and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The vendor posts lab results online to provide researchers with clear information on what they are purchasing and at what purity.
    • Fair Pricing: Licensed researchers can purchase research-grade PT-141 at $49.50 per 10mg vial, which is a fair price by industry standards. Discounts are available for bulk purchases.
    • USA Production: Peptide Sciences has partnered with WHO/GMP and ISO 9001:2008 approved manufacturers to ensure that their peptides are produced here in the USA and in line with industry best practices.
    • Fast Shipping: Domestic orders totalling over $200 qualify for free shipping, and often arrive within just two to three business days. International orders are subject to variable shipping fees and usually arrive within seven to ten business days.
    • Customer Care: Researchers can reach Peptide Sciences either by email or phone. Their team is knowledgeable and available to answer questions about the compounds on sale.
      Researchers looking to source high-quality PT-141 for their next study are advised to check out Peptide Sciences, an established leader in the research peptides community.

Buy PT-141 from the #1 online Peptides vendor in the world...


Nasal Spray vs. Injectable PT-141

As we have seen from the published research, PT-141 may be administered as a subcutaneous injection or intranasally. These mechanisms of delivery have their unique advantages and drawbacks.

Administering a PT-141 injection may not always be practical or convenient, depending on the nature of the research and the research subject. In these cases, a research-grade PT-141 nasal spray offers the undeniable benefits of convenience and portability.

Many PT-141 nasal sprays available on the market do not even need to be refrigerated, unlike an already reconstituted vial of PT-141 for injection.

A PT-141 nasal spray may also potentially take effect more rapidly than PT-141 in injectable form, since substances absorbed by blood vessels in the nasal cavities pass directly into the systemic circulation and avoid first-pass metabolism [21]. In the study by Diamond et al., intranasally administered PT-141 produced erections in as little as 30 minutes [12].

Researchers seeking an easy-to-administer PT-141 nasal spray should visit trusted vendor Pure Rawz.

Pure Rawz’ Arouse Spray contains 5mg PT-141 and a further 5mg Oxytocin, for enhanced sexual performance.


PT-141 and Men | Verdict

PT-141 is a melanocortin receptor agonist that has recently been approved by the FDA to treat HSDD in women. There is also extensive research supporting its potential as a treatment for male erectile dysfunction and low libido.

Erectile dysfunction medications like Cialis and Viagra have been known to cause various side effects in men, as they directly induce blood flow to the penis.

PT-141 has been shown to alleviate cases of erectile dysfunction and improve sexual satisfaction in men without any notable side effects.

Researchers planning to investigate this exciting compound are advised to purchase PT-141 for injection from Peptide Sciences or the intranasal spray from Pure Rawz.


References

  1. Wessells H, Blevins JE, Vanderah TW. Melanocortinergic control of penile erection. Peptides. 2005 Oct;26(10):1972-7. doi: 10.1016/j.peptides.2004.11.035. PMID: 15992962; PMCID: PMC4768007.
  2. Rosen RC, Diamond LE, Earle DC, Shadiack AM, Molinoff PB. Evaluation of the safety, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic effects of subcutaneously administered PT-141, a melanocortin receptor agonist, in healthy male subjects and in patients with an inadequate response to Viagra. Int J Impot Res. 2004 Apr;16(2):135-42. doi: 10.1038/sj.ijir.3901200. PMID: 14999221.
  3. Bremelanotide (Vyleesi) for hypoactive sexual desire disorder. Med Lett Drugs Ther. 2019 Jul 29;61(1577):114-116. PMID: 31381550.
  4. Mayer D, Lynch SE. Bremelanotide: New Drug Approved for Treating Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder. Ann Pharmacother. 2020 Jul;54(7):684-690. doi: 10.1177/1060028019899152. Epub 2020 Jan 1. PMID: 31893927.
  5. Pfaus JG, Sadiq A, Spana C, Clayton AH. The neurobiology of bremelanotide for the treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder in premenopausal women. CNS Spectr. 2022 Jun;27(3):281-289. doi: 10.1017/S109285292100002X. Epub 2021 Jan 18. PMID: 33455598.
  6. Dhillon S, Keam SJ. Bremelanotide: First Approval. Drugs. 2019 Sep;79(14):1599-1606. doi: 10.1007/s40265-019-01187-w. PMID: 31429064.
  7. Commissioner, O. of the. (n.d.). FDA approves new treatment for hypoactive sexual desire disorder in premenopausal women. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved August 28, 2022, from https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/fda-approves-new-treatment-hypoactive-sexual-desire-disorder-premenopausal-women
  8. Laumann EO, Paik A, Rosen RC. Sexual dysfunction in the United States: prevalence and predictors. JAMA. 1999 Feb 10;281(6):537-44. doi: 10.1001/jama.281.6.537. Erratum in: JAMA 1999 Apr 7;281(13):1174. PMID: 10022110.
  9. Wessells H, Joyce GF, Wise M, Wilt TJ. Erectile dysfunction. J Urol. 2007 May;177(5):1675-81. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2007.01.057. PMID: 17437781.
  10. Seagraves RT. Depression and erectile dysfunction. Postgrad Med. 2000 May;107(6 Suppl Educational):24-7. doi: 10.3810/pgm.5.15.2000.suppl5.29. PMID: 19667520.
  11. Safarinejad MR, Hosseini SY. Salvage of sildenafil failures with bremelanotide: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study. J Urol. 2008 Mar;179(3):1066-71. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2007.10.063. Epub 2008 Jan 18. PMID: 18206919.
  12. Diamond, L. E., Earle, D. C., Rosen, R. C., Willett, M. S., & Molinoff, P. B. (2004, February 12). Double-blind, placebo-controlled evaluation of the safety, pharmacokinetic properties and pharmacodynamic effects of intranasal PT-141, a melanocortin receptor agonist, in healthy males and patients with mild-to-moderate erectile dysfunction. Nature News. Retrieved August 28, 2022, from https://www.nature.com/articles/3901139
  13. Lindblom J, Kask A, Hägg E, Härmark L, Bergström L, Wikberg J. Chronic infusion of a melanocortin receptor agonist modulates dopamine receptor binding in the rat brain. Pharmacol Res. 2002 Feb;45(2):119-24. doi: 10.1006/phrs.2001.0913. PMID: 11846623
  14. Sharot, T., Guitart-Masip, M., Korn, C. W., Chowdhury, R., & Dolan, R. J. (2012, July 12). How dopamine enhances an optimism bias in humans. Current Biology. Retrieved August 23, 2022, from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960982212006458
  15. Althof S, Derogatis LR, Greenberg S, Clayton AH, Jordan R, Lucas J, Spana C. Responder Analyses from a Phase 2b Dose-Ranging Study of Bremelanotide. J Sex Med. 2019 Aug;16(8):1226-1235. doi: 10.1016/j.jsxm.2019.05.012. Epub 2019 Jul 2. PMID: 31277966.
  16. Walid. (2019, August 16). About Vyleesi: Approved bremelanotide injection for HSDD. Vyleesi (bremelanotide injection) 1.75mg/0.3 ml | for subcutaneous use only. Retrieved August 22, 2022, from https://www.vyleesi.com/about-vyleesi/
  17. Simon JA, Kingsberg SA, Portman D, Williams LA, Krop J, Jordan R, Lucas J, Clayton AH. Long-Term Safety and Efficacy of Bremelanotide for Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder. Obstet Gynecol. 2019 Nov;134(5):909-917. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000003514. PMID: 31599847; PMCID: PMC6819023.
  18. LiverTox: Clinical and Research Information on Drug-Induced Liver Injury [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; 2012–. Bremelanotide. 2021 Aug 20. PMID: 34436837.
  19. Makhlouf A, Kparker A, Niederberger CS. Depression and erectile dysfunction. Urol Clin North Am. 2007 Nov;34(4):565-74, vii. doi: 10.1016/j.ucl.2007.08.009. PMID: 17983896.
  20. Seagraves RT. Depression and erectile dysfunction. Postgrad Med. 2000 May;107(6 Suppl Educational):24-7. doi: 10.3810/pgm.5.15.2000.suppl5.29. PMID: 19667520.
  21. Szente V, Zelkó R. Helyspecifikus hatóanyagleadást biztosító rendszerek. III. Nazális gyógyszerformák [Site-specific drug delivery systems. III. Nasal drug delivery]. Acta Pharm Hung. 2008;78(2):87-90. Hungarian. PMID: 18807389.

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