Titus Thorne

Last Updated April 1, 2022

Titus Thorne

 April 1, 2022

In this PT-141 review, we’ll explore the history of this fascinating research chemical, from its early days as an obscure peptide analog, to its current status as an FDA-approved treatment for hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) in premenopausal women.

We will outline the main potential benefits offered by PT-141, as well how it has been dosed in clinical studies and the type of side effects observed. With this review, we intend to offer an overview of PT-141 that can be used as a point of reference for researchers interested in conducting further experiments.

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What Is PT-141?

PT-141 is a melanocortin receptor agonist better known as bremelanotide that was approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration in 2019 for the treatment of premenopausal women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) [1].

PT-141 was originally developed by Palatin Technologies and released under the brand name “Vyleesi,” but its manufacture and development have been out-licensed to AMAG Pharmaceuticals Inc.[2].

In the United States, “Vyleesi” is available as a prescription medicine to patients who have received a diagnosis for HSDD. It can be self-administered subcutaneously by patients in their homes as directed by their physician [3].

PT-141 is also available online as a research chemical and is available to researchers interested in exploring its purported benefits.

PT-141 is clearly an interesting peptide, but does it work? We’ll explore that in the next section.


Does PT-141 Actually Work? | Our Experience

PT-141 is a fascinating research chemical, but does it actually work? Here’s our experience.

In the U.S., bremelanotide is an FDA-approved medicine that is used to treat premenopausal women diagnosed with HSDD. It has been well researched and shown to have high efficacy for treating HSDD.

PT-141 is essentially the peptide analog form of bremelanotide and works in exactly the same manner as the brand name bremelanotide available to patients in the United States (i.e. “Vyleesi”). The benefits and side effects of PT-141 are indistinguishable for all intents and purposes. Researchers interested in buying research-grade PT-141 are advised to buy it from a reputable vendor that publishes third-party reports on the peptide’s quality and purity. More on that below.

But first, we will explore the top five benefits and effects of PT-141.

PT-141 Benefits and Effects | Top 5

When considering PT-141’s potential benefits and effects, careful attention must be paid to all relevant medical literature. From our review of the literature, we note the following top five benefits and effects of this peptide:

  1. Increased sexual desire in premenopausal women with HSDD [2, 4]
  2. Increased frequency of “satisfying sexual events” in premenopausal women with HSDD [5]
  3. Lowered intercourse-related distress in premenopausal women with HSDD [6, 7]
  4. Increased erectile response in men with erectile dysfunction (ED) [8, 9]
  5. Produces minor adverse events (AEs), most commonly nausea [2, 10]

Below, we will expand upon these top five benefits and effects.

1. Increased Sexual Desire in Premenopausal Women With HSDD

PT-141 has been shown to increase sexual desire in premenopausal women with HSDD. When discussing this benefit, it is important to stress that it applies only to premenopausal women with HSDD. PT-141 has not been shown to increase sexual desire in men or postmenopausal women regardless of whether they have HSDD, but it has been shown to induce an erectile response in men [7].

2. Increased Frequency of “Satisfying Sexual Events” in Premenopausal Women With HSDD

There is strong evidence to suggest that PT-141 can increase the frequency with which premenopausal women with HSDD experience “satisfying sexual events” [5]. Several smaller studies have shown that PT-141 can produce an erectile response in male patients, which can increase the chances of them experiencing a sexually satisfying event [8].

3. Lowered Intercourse-related Distress in Premenopausal Women With HSDD

PT-141 has been approved by the FDA to lower “intercourse-related distress” in premenopausal women with HSDD [6, 7]. Its exact mechanism of action is not yet fully understood but it is believed to cause a sharp rise in dopamine levels in the brain. PT-141’s potential to help men with intercourse-related distress remains an area for further research.

4. Increased Erectile Response in Men With Erectile Dysfunction (ED)

We should stress that at the time of writing, PT-141 has not received FDA approval for any purpose other than to treat premenopausal women with HSDD. However, there is limited research to show that it may offer potential as a treatment for erectile dysfunction (ED) if sildenafil (Viagra) fails.

A small-scale 2004 study found that male test subjects who had an “insufficient response to sildenafil (Viagra) achieved an “erectile response” following an injection of PT-141. A variety of dosages were explored, and all dosages over 1 mg produced a “statistically significant” response [8].

Another study confirmed that PT-141 could produce a positive clinical result when administered intranasally prior to intercourse [9].

5. Produces Minor AEs, Most Commonly Nausea

In terms of PT-141’s safety profile, it appears to cause only minor adverse events (AEs) under controlled conditions, most commonly nausea. According to data from phase 2 and 3 clinical trials involving PT-141, the most common adverse reactions are [2, 7, 10]:

  • Nausea
  • Flushing
  • Injection site reactions
  • Headaches
  • Vomiting

The incidence of these side effects was <4% and, of those affected, 18% decided to discontinue the study. The most common reasons for discontinuation were nausea (8%) and headaches (2%). Other reasons included vomiting (1%), flushing (1%), injection site reactions (1%), flu-like symptoms (<1%), and increased blood pressure (<1%).

Due to the possibility that PT-141 may increase blood pressure and reduce heart rate for up to 12 hours, it must not be administered to, or by, subjects who may be pregnant, or who have a known cardiovascular disease or uncontrolled hypertension.

As an HSDD treatment, PT-141 can be safely self-administered at a dose of up to 1.75 mg per day, up to a maximum of 8 times per month [11], with the slight possibility that it may cause elevated serum enzyme levels [12].

Having reviewed PT-141’s top 5 benefits and effects, it’s time to focus on how it may be dosed in a research setting.

PT-141 Dosage Guide

Researchers interested in PT-141 dosages will note that this peptide’s FDA-approved use is limited to the treatment of premenopausal women with HSDD. Patients prescribed brand-name PT-141 (Vyleesi) will be given dosing guidelines by their doctors. As there are currently no other recognized therapeutic uses for PT-141, researchers interested in experimenting with this peptide for other purposes may consult the relevant literature from past clinical studies. This section will summarise the available research.


The appearance of PT-141 differs depending on whether it is purchased as a medicine or as a research chemical.

  • Brand name PT-141 (Vylessi) is packaged in prefilled autoinjector pens that can be self-administered by patients [7]. It is colorless and odorless in appearance and should be discarded if it appears cloudy or discolored.
  • Generic bremelanotide, “PT-141”, is sold as a powder that must be reconstituted before being administered subcutaneously. Once reconstituted, PT-141 should be identical in appearance to Vylessi.


In past clinical studies, PT-141 has been self-administered by HSDD patients approximately 45 minutes to 2 hours before sexual activity takes place [7]. With experience, researchers can judge the best time to administer PT-141 on a case-by-case basis, depending on any adverse reactions observed in test subject and the duration of effects.


Patients with HSDD are typically advised by their doctors to inject Vylessi no more than once per day, up to a maximum of 8 times per month. Bremelanotide has an effect on heart rate and blood pressure, so exceeding these limits is not advised [7].


Patients with HSDD will be given dosing guidelines by their doctors, but the most common PT-141 dosage for HSDD patients is 1.75 mg mixed with 0.3 mL of solution [7]. Past research has shown that smaller dosages of 1.25 mg produce a clinically significant response [5].

While PT-141 has not received FDA approval as a treatment for ED, studies involving this peptide have shown that it can produce erectile responses “at doses greater than 1.0 mg” [8].

Following on from this PT-141 dosing guide, we will now share our recommendation for the best place to buy PT-141 online.

Where To Buy PT-141 Online? | 2022 Guide

While PT-141 is widely available online, researchers may find that securing a reliable source of research-grade bremelanotide is challenging. Our team has found that many vendors claiming to offer high-quality PT-141 fall short of the mark.

To address this difficulty, we made test purchases from a variety of online vendors and assessed them according to various criteria, such as the quality of the peptides they supplied, their prices, delivery times, and customer service.

In our experience, the top vendor currently supplying PT-141 today is Peptide Sciences. We’ve had nothing but great experiences ordering PT-141 from Peptide Sciences and highly recommend them.

Here are a few things that they do phenomenally well.

  • Third-Party Testing: Many vendors claim to get their peptides independently tested, but only Peptide Sciences publishes the lab tests to prove it. They get each batch of PT-141 thoroughly tested by an independent lab and then publish the lab reports on their website. Here’s how they look:

Researchers can view these reports and ensure that they are buying 99% pure, research-grade PT-141 before placing an order.

  • Reasonable Prices: Peptide Sciences doesn’t have the lowest prices, but they are fair and affordable. A 10 mg vial of PT-141 costs $47.50 from this vendor, and this drops by 14% for researchers who place a bulk order of 10 vials or more.
  • Industry-Leading Customer Service: Of all the vendors we reviewed, Peptide Sciences has the best customer service hands down. Their helpful, friendly staff responded to calls and emails promptly and helped guide us through each step of the buying process.
  • Fast, Secure Website: When buying peptides online, the last thing researchers want is for their personal data and payment information to be leaked. Researchers will have no such worries when they order from Peptide Sciences. Their SSL-secured website will not leak or expose personal details, ensuring complete privacy and peace of mind.
  • Free Shipping to the US: Peptide Science offers fast, free shipping to addresses in the U.S. on all orders over $100. They also ship worldwide for a flat rate of $15 and include a 30 mL vial of bacteriostatic water on every order valued at over $300. Researchers won’t have to wait long when they order from this vendor!

Having tested all the top peptide vendors currently serving the market, we feel confident in recommending Peptide Sciences. They offer 99% pure bremelanotide at reasonable prices and can deliver orders in a timely manner.

Ready to order PT-141 from the top-rated online vendor?

In-Depth PT-141 Review | Verdict?

This PT-141 review has outlined the main potential benefits, uses, side effects, and dosages of this research chemical—hopefully addressing any questions that researchers may have. Apart from its availability as a research peptide, PT-141 is an FDA-approved treatment for HSDD in premenopausal patients and is commonly dosed at 1.75 mg. It is not associated with any serious side effects and has a good safety and tolerability profile.

Those looking to run experiments on this interesting peptide would be well advised to consider Peptide Science as their preferred vendor.



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  2. Mayer D, Lynch SE. Bremelanotide: New Drug Approved for Treating Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder. Ann Pharmacother. 2020 Jul;54(7):684-690. doi: 10.1177/1060028019899152. Epub 2020 Jan 1. PMID: 31893927.
  3. Bremelanotide (Vyleesi) for hypoactive sexual desire disorder. Med Lett Drugs Ther. 2019 Jul 29;61(1577):114-116. PMID: 31381550.
  4. Pfaus JG, Sadiq A, Spana C, Clayton AH. The neurobiology of bremelanotide for the treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder in premenopausal women. CNS Spectr. 2021 Jan 18:1-9. doi: 10.1017/S109285292100002X. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33455598.
  5. Clayton, A. H., Althof, S. E., Kingsberg, S., DeRogatis, L. R., Kroll, R., Goldstein, I., Kaminetsky, J., Spana, C., Lucas, J., Jordan, R., & Portman, D. J. (2016). Bremelanotide for female sexual dysfunctions in premenopausal women: a randomized, placebo-controlled dose-finding trial. Women's health (London, England), 12(3), 325–337. https://doi.org/10.2217/whe-2016-0018
  6. Kingsberg SA, Clayton AH, Portman D, Williams LA, Krop J, Jordan R, Lucas J, Simon JA. Bremelanotide for the Treatment of Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder: Two Randomized Phase 3 Trials. Obstet Gynecol. 2019 Nov;134(5):899-908. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000003500. PMID: 31599840; PMCID: PMC6819021.
  7. (2021). Retrieved 10 October 2021, from https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2019/210557s000lbl.pdf
  8. Rosen, R. C., Diamond, L. E., Earle, D. C., Shadiack, A. M., & Molinoff, P. B. (2004). Evaluation of the safety, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic effects of subcutaneously administered PT-141, a melanocortin receptor agonist, in healthy male subjects and in patients with an inadequate response to Viagra. International journal of impotence research, 16(2), 135–142. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ijir.3901200
  9. Safarinejad, M. R., & Hosseini, S. Y. (2008). Salvage of sildenafil failures with bremelanotide: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study. The Journal of urology, 179(3), 1066–1071. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2007.10.063
  10. Simon JA, Kingsberg SA, Portman D, Williams LA, Krop J, Jordan R, Lucas J, Clayton AH. Long-Term Safety and Efficacy of Bremelanotide for Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder. Obstet Gynecol. 2019 Nov;134(5):909-917. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000003514. PMID: 31599847; PMCID: PMC6819023.
  11. Althof S, Derogatis LR, Greenberg S, Clayton AH, Jordan R, Lucas J, Spana C. Responder Analyses from a Phase 2b Dose-Ranging Study of Bremelanotide. J Sex Med. 2019 Aug;16(8):1226-1235. doi: 10.1016/j.jsxm.2019.05.012. Epub 2019 Jul 2. PMID: 31277966.
  12. LiverTox: Clinical and Research Information on Drug-Induced Liver Injury [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; 2012–. Bremelanotide. 2021 Aug 20. PMID: 34436837.
  13. Kim S, Cho MC, Cho SY, Chung H, Rajasekaran MR. Novel Emerging Therapies for Erectile Dysfunction. World J Mens Health. 2021 Jan;39(1):48-64. doi: 10.5534/wjmh.200007. Epub 2020 Mar 16. PMID: 32202086; PMCID: PMC7752520.

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